11th Grade Anatomy part 2 biochemistry

Question Answer
The study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter Biochemistry
compounds that contain carbon organic compounds
compounds that don't contain carbon they are called inorganic compounds (if not organic, they are inorganic)
which one is more essential for life both are
this means water can absorb and release large amounts of heat before it changes a lot in temperature High heat capacity
when water changes from a liquid to a gas it requires a lot of heat to be absorbed to break the hydrogen bonds that hold water together…this is called high heat of vaporization
water is called what because it is a solvent that is very useful Universal solvent
water forms layers of water molecules called _________around large charged molecules such as proteins protecting them from the effects of other molecules hydration layers
water is an important ___________________in many chemical reactions reactant
when a water molecule is added to food foods can be digested –this is a decomposition reactions also called hydrolysis reaction
when large carbohydrate molecules are synthesized (made) from smaller molecules, a water molecule is removed.. dehydration synthesis
water forms a cushion around certain body organs and protects them…this is called cushioning
an ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and anions other than the hydroxyl ion (OH-) salt
all ions are this and they are substances that conduct an electrical current in solution electrolyites
groups of atoms that have an overall charge polyatomic ions
these have a sour taste and can react (dissolve) metals and can burn acids
acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+)
because a hydrogen ion is just a hydrogen nucleus, or "naked" proton, acids are also defined as proton donors
what do acids do when they are dissolved in water they release hydrogen ions (protons) and anions
These have a bitter taste, feel slippery and take up hydrogen ions (H+) Bases
this is the term that meand they take up hydrogen ions proton acceptors
common bases include the__________________ hydroxides
2 common hydroxides are magnesium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide===also known as milk of magnesia (calms stomachs) and sodium hydroide (Lye–used to make powerful soap—granny makes it on Beverly Hillbillies)
This ion is an important base in the body and especially in the blood bicarbonate Ion (HC03-)
this is a common waste product of protein breakdown in the body and it is a base ammonia
the relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids is measured in units called pH units
the pH scale runs from ______to __________ 0 to 14
each successive change of one pH unit (example from 1 to 2 or 4 to 5) represents a tenfold change (times 10). this is called a _________ change logarithmic
at what pH is something considered neutral 7
solutions below 7 are considered acidic
solutions above 7 are considered alkaline
when acids and bases mix, they form a water and a salt, this reaction is called a neutralization reaction
Homeostasis of acid -base balance is regulated by kidneys and lungs and by chemicals called buffers
what do buffers do they resist abrupt and large swings in the pH of body fluids
acids that dissociate (dissolve) completely and irreversibly are called_____and can dramatically change the pH of a solution strong acids
acids that do not dissociate completely, like carbonic acid (H2CO3) and Acetic acid (HAc) are weak acids
bases that dissociate easily and completely in water are called strong bases
bases that dissociate incompletely are called weak bases
the major chemical blood buffer is carbonic acid-bicarbonate base
why is eater such a good solvent they are polar molecules and they attract the solute(the item being dissolved) molecule and then wrap around it
water makes up 60-80% of living matter, what property makes if an excellent solvent its polarity makes it a good solvent….as a dipole it can orient itself to the end of othermolecules
salts are elctrolytes, what does that mean they conduct electricity
which ions are responsible for increased acidity H+ is responsible for acidity
to minimize the sharp pH shift that occurs when a strong acid is added to a solution, is it better to add a weak base of a stron base? why a weak base is better to buffer a strong acid
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids all contain ________-which makes them an Organic compound Carbon
These are two exceptions to the rule that says all compounds containing carbon are organic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
Organic molecules are generally very large
although large only small reactive parts of them called ________ react with other molecules functional groups ( acid groups, amines for example)
carbon atoms are very ______________ which means they never gain or lose electrons electroneutral
these are biological molecules that are similar or repeating monmers
these are chains of monomers (carbohydrates and proteins)that are joined together by dehydration synthesis polymers
Groups of molecules that includes sugars and starches carbohydrates
Carbohydrates contain what molecules carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
what does monosaccharide mean one sugar–simple sugar
what does disaccharide mean two sugars–double sugar
what does polysaccharide mean many sugars–
these are simple sugars and are single-chain or single-ring structures containing 3 to 7 carbon atoms monosaccharides
what ratio is generally used when talking about sugars 1-2-1 (carbon, hydrogen, then oxygen)
monosaccharides are generally named according to the amount of _____________ atoms they have carbon
the most important sugars in the body are pentose and hexose….how many atoms of sugarare in each five–pentose; 6–hexose
deoxyribose (a pentose) is part of what the DNA
Glucose, (a hexose) is blood sugar
two other hexoses (Galactose and Fructose) are ____________________ of glucose isomers….they have the same formula but the atoms are arranged differently
disaccharides are formed when 2 monosaccharides are joined by dehyration synthesis…a water molecule is lost in the process
what are some of the important disaccharides in the diet Sucrose (glucose+fructose)–cane or table sugar, lactose (glucose + galactose) milk sugar, maltose (glucose+glucose) malt sugar
polysaccharides are polymers of simple sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis
why can't disaccharides pass through cell membranes they are too large and need to be absorbed in the digestive tract
because polysaccharides are large and fairly insoluble, they are good for what storage
the storage carbohydrate in plants is called starch
the storage carbohydrate of animals is called glycogen
where is glycogen stored in skeletal muscle and the liver
what is the function of carbohydrates provide a ready and easily used source of fuel for the cells
Lipids (fats) are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in other lipids and other organic solvents such as alcohol and ether
Lipids are made of what molecules carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but the proportion of oxygen is lower than carbohydrates
Lipids include triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids
triglycerides are also called neutral fats
they are commonly called fats and oils…when are they called this when solid, they are called fats, when liquid, they are called oils
triglycerides are made of 2 building blocks fatty acids and glycerol
What is the ratio of fatty acids to glycerol 3 to 1
these are linear chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with an organic acid group at one end fatty acids
this is a modified simple sugar glycerol
triglycerides are nonpolar molecules and they dont mix with water..why water is polar and non polar and polar do not mix
what is good about triglycerides they are the body's most efficient and compact form of store energy and they yield lots of energy
where are triglycerides found? mostly under the skin where they insulate the body and protect thedeeper body tissues from trauma
fatty acids chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms are referred to as saturated
saturated fatty acid chains are straight and at room temperature are packed together and solid
fatty acids that contain one double bond between the carbon atom is called monounsaturated..it is an oil and not a fat because the atoms are not packed close together
fatty acids with multiple bonds between the carbon atoms is called polyunsaturated…it is an oil and not a fat because the atoms are not packed close together
oils that have been solidified by adding Hydrogen atoms are called trans fats..they increase heart disease
this fat decreases heart disease omega-3 fatty acids (found in cold water fish like salmon)
these are modified triglycerides with a phosphorus containing group and 2 fatty acids phospholipids
flat molecules that are made of four interlocking carbon rings steroids
the sinlge most important molecule in our steroid chemistry cholesterol
these make up 10-30% of cell mass and are the basic structural material of the body proteins
the building blocks of proteins amino acids
diverse lipids derived from 20 carbon fatty acids found in all membranes. Eicosanoids
What are the monomers of carbohydrates called? Which monomer id blood sugar? Monomers of carbohydrates are called monosaccharides or simple sugars. Glucose is blood sugar
what is the animal form of stored carbohydrate called? The animal form of stored carbohydrates is glycogen.
How do triglycerides differ from phospholipids in body function and location? Triglycerides major source of stored energy in the body. made of 3 fatty acid chains& a glycerol molecule found in fat tissue. P-lipids consist of two fatty acids. found in all cell membranes where they form basis for the membrane
What is the result of hydrolysis reactions and how are these reactions accomplished in the body? Hydrolysis reactions break down polymers or macromolecules to their monomers by adding water to each bond joining monomers
All amino acids have 2 important functional groups a Basic (base –NH2) group called amine group and an organic Acid group(–COOH)
Proteins are long chains of amino acids joined together by dehydration synthesis with the amine end of of one amino acid linked to the acid end of the next called a ….peptide bond
2 united amino acids form a dipeptide
3 united amino acids form a tripeptide
10 or more united amino acids form a polypeptide
Most proteins are macromolecules
Proteins come in how many structural levels 4
Proteins are classified according to their appearance and shape
What are the two types of proteins fibrous and globuluar
Fibrous proteins are extended and strandlike
Fibrous proteins are _________________ in water insoluble
Since they are insoluble, this makes them have what qualities good for mechanical support and tensile strength
They are also known as…… structural proteins
These proteins are compact, spherical globular
Globular proteins are ________in water soluble
Globular proteins are also called functional proteins
Globular proteins are responsible for immunity, growth, and chemical reactions in the body
Which proteins are stable fibrous
These proteins are not stable globular
The linear sequence of amino acids composing the polypeptide chain is called the primary structure of a protein
Proteins normally do not exist as simple linear chains, instead they twist or bend on themselves forming a more complex secondary structure
Alpha helix’s link _______ different parts of the same chain together
Another secondary type of structure is called the __________ where the chains do not coil but are linked side by side by hydrogen bonds beta pleated helix
Secondary helix’s link different parts of the same chain together or different polypeptide chains
The third (or tertiary) style is called the _________________ and it looks like a ball globular
when proteins begin to break down due to heat or pH, they unfold and lose their shape…this is called denatured….but it can be reversed
when globular proteins are denatured, they can no longer do their duties because their function depends on the specific presence of atoms called ________ on their surfaces active sites
what does the name amino acid tel lyou about the structure of the molecule it has an amine group (NH2) and a COOH group that has acidic properties
what is the primary structure of protein it is a stringlike chain of amino acids
what are the 2 types of secondary structure in proteins alpha helix and beta pleated helix
these help proteins achieve their functional three dimensional shape molecular chaperones
what else to molecular chaperones do prevent accidental or premature folding of protein, help transport proteins across the membrane, promote the breakdown of denatured proteins, trigger immune response to disease
the first such proteins discovered were called heat shock proteins–why they protected cells from the harmful effects of heat
These are globular proteins that act as a biological catalyst Enzymes (catalysts regulate or speed up chemical reactions
enzymes consist of two parts that make up the holoenzyme , what are these parts apoenzyme ( a protein) and a cofactor
the substance on which an enzymes acts upon substrate
this is the energy that is needed by enzymes to perform their function activation energy
the activation energy is used to break the bonds of the reactants
kinetic energy is used to make the bonds break, how can kinetic energy be increased increase the temperature, but high temperatures can denature the proteins—this is shy high fevers are bad
what is the main event that molecular chaperones prevent prevent inaccurate folding in the 3d structure of the protein
How do enzymes reduce the amount of activation energy needed to make a chemical reaction go enzymes hold the substrate in a desirable positionto interact
nucleic acids are composed of what carbon, nitrogen and phosporus….largest molecules in the body
the 2 major nucleic acids DNA and RNA
the structural units of nucleic acids are called nucleotides
the 5 major varieties of nucleotides adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine(C), thymine(T) and uracil (U)
where is DNA found in the nucleus of a cell
what does DNA do it reproduces itself before a cell divides, and it provides instructions for building every protein in the body
the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose
the DNA molecule is called a double helix …looks like a twisted ladder
where is RNA found outside the nucleus
how do DNA and RNA differ in the bases and sugars they contain DNA contains deoxyribose sugar and the bases A,T,G,and C and RNA contains ribose sugar and the bases A, U (uracil), G, and C
what are the 2 important roles of DNA it dictates protein structure (how to make a protein) and it reproduces itself so the new cell is identical to the old cell.
Energy released from glucose through catabolism is coupled to ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
glucose is an energy rich molecule, so why do body cells need ATP ATO stores the energy is small packets that are released easier
what change occures in ATP when it releases energy when ATP releases energy, it loses a phosphate group and become ADP
what are the 4 components of the Cell Theory Cell is basic structure of life, activity of an organism depends on the activities of the cells, structure and function are dictated by the number of cells, continuity of life depends on cells
human cells have 3 parts plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
the plasma membrane is a fragile barrier, the outer layer of the cell
thecytoplasm is the fluid in a cell that is packed with organelles
the nucleus is the controller of cellular activity
what is a generalized cell it is the concept that includes structures and functions common to all cells
what does the plasma membrane do defines the boundary of a cell…separating the intracellular fluid from the extracellular fluid
this depicts the membrane as being very thin fluid mosaic model
this forms the fabric of the membrane lipid bilayer
the lipid bilayer is made of phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids
the lollypop shaped phospholipd has a polar head and is hydrophilic–likes water
the nonpolar tail is hydrophobic–dislikes water
this is a lipid (fat) with sugar groups attached glycolipids….make up 5% of the membrane
20% of the outer membrane surface contains lipid rafts which are assemblies of saturated phospholipids
these make up about 50% of the membrane proteins
there are 2 distinct populations of membranes integral and peripheral
these proteins are firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer integral proteins
these proteins are not embedded in a liquid peripheral proteins
this is a fuzzy sticky carbohydrate rich area at the cell surface glycocalyx–basically the cells are sugar coated
because every cell type has a different pattern of sugar in the glycocalyx, this allows cells to recognize each other
three factors act to bind cells together…they are glycoproteins, wavy contours of the proteins, and special membrane junctions
these are a series of integral protein molecules in the plasma membrane and they form an impermeable junction tight junction
these are anchoring junctions–mechanical couplings like rivets Desmosomes
the button like thickening on the membrane plaque
Desmsomes also act as guy wires which hold the cells together
this is a communications junction between adjacent cells Gap junction or nexus
what 2 types of membrane junctions would you expect to find between muscle cells of the heart desosomes and gap junctions
cells are bathed in a fluid called_______that is derived from blood interetitial fluid which acts a nutritious soup
although there is continuous traffic across the plasms membrane it is a SELECTIVELY, or DIFFERENTIALLY , PERMEABLE barrier meaning it allows some substances to pass while excluding others
substances move across the membrane in two ways passive process and active process
in this one, the substance crosses the membrane without any energy from the cell passive process
in this one, the substance provides metabolic energy (ATP) needed to move the substance across the membrane Active process
Selective permeability is a characteristic of a healthy cells
two types of passive transport diffusion and filtration
what is diffusion the tendency of molecules or ions to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (concentration gradient)
diffusion is based on kinetic energy therefore it is influenced by molecular size (smaller is faster) and temperature (warmer is faster)
nonpolar and lipid soluble substances diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer simple diffusion
when a substance is transported in a passive way where the substance either binds to a protein or moves through water filled protein channels facilitated diffusion
these are transmembrane integral proteins that help large molecules pass through the membrane channels carriers
these are transmembrane proteins that serve to transport ions or water channels
this is the diffusion of a solvent such as water through a selectively permeable membrane osmosis
water moves freely and reversibly through water specific channels made of transmembrane proteins called aquaporins
the total concentration of all solute particles in a solution osmolarity
the pressure exerted by water against the membrane hydrostatic pressure
the tendency of water to move into the cell by osmosis osmotic pressure
the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of a cell tonicity
solutions with the same concentration of nonpenetrating solutes as those found in cells isotonic " same tonicity"
solutions with a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than seen in the cell hypertonic
solutions with a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than cells hypotonic
what is the source of energy for all types of diffusion kinetic energy
what determines the direction of any diffusion process the relative concentration of the substance on different areas–higher concentration to area of lower concentration
what are the 2 types of facilitated diffusion and how do they differ in channel mediated, the diffusing substance moves thru a membrane channel, in carrier mediated, the substance attaches to a membrane carrier ( protein)
requires carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with the transported substance Active transport
unlike diffusion, these active transporters move solutes uphill against a concentration gradient solute pumps
if 2 substances are moved in the same direction, the system is a symport system
if 2 substances cross in opposite directions the system is an antiport system
fluids containing large particles and macromolecules are transported across cellular membranes in sacs called Vesicles…this is called vesicular transport
when they eject the substance from the cell interior to the extracellular fluid it is called exocytosis
when the substance moves from the cell exterior to the cell interior endocytosis
this is a type off endocytosis where the cell engulfs some large material phagocytosis
it engulfs the item and forms a sac (vesicle) around it called a phagosome
phagocytes move by the flowing of the cytoplasm into temporary pseudopods (arm or leg like temporary appendages) amoebid motion
cell drinking or fluid phase endocytosis where the plasma membrane surrounds a very small amount of fluid pinocytosis
the main mechanism for endocytosis and transcytosis of macromolecules receptor-mediated endocytosis
tubular or flask shaped pockets of the plasma caveolae
a membrane sac is called a vesicle
as a cell grows its plasma membrane expands. is this endocytosis or excocytosis exocytosis…cell is expanding and pushing outware
phagocytic cells gather in the lungs, especially people who smoke, why they engulf the debris (junk) that is collected in the lungs
what vesicular transport process allows a cell to take in cholesterol from the extracellular fluid receptor mediated endocytosis
the development of specific and distinctive features in cells is called cell differentiation
when more cells are produced than what is needed, the excesses are eliminated in a type of programmed death called apoptosis
when a person is anemic the bone marrow goes into accelerated growth to make more red blood cells. this is called hyperplasia
a decrease in the size of an organ due to lack of use atrophy
strings of nucleotides at the end of chromosomes that act like the plastic cap at the end of the shoelace telomeres
what is the wear and tear theory of aging it attributes aging to little chemical insults and the formation of free radicals, both which have cumulative (they add up) effects
monomers are the building blocks of polymers such as monossachrides make up disaccharides. simple sugars make up carbohydrates which do what provide energy to the body

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