5th SS Chapter 11 The Young United States

Question Answer
Who convinced George Washington to become president? Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton
What is the Electoral College? Each state has a certain number of representatives that vote for the president. The number of representatives is equal to the number of senators plus members of the House of Representatives allotted for that state
George Washington was elected president by the electoral college by a ___________ vote unanimous
When and where was George Washington’s inauguration? April 30, 1789 in New York City, New York
As president, George Washington divided the work of the ______________. Executive Branch
Which department conducted foreign affairs? Department of the State
Which department handles money matters? Department of the Treasury
Who was chosen as the first Secretary of State? Thomas Jefferson
Who was chosen as first Treasurer (Secretary of the Treasury)? Alexander Hamilton
Who makes up the President’s cabinet? The heads of the departments created by Washington
Whose idea was the President’s cabinet? George Washington
What was the responsibility of the President’s cabinet? To help the President govern
Why was George Washington a well-liked president? He showed the ability to delegate responsibilities and recognize leadership qualities in others.
Why did Hamilton want a strong government? It should encourage the growth of cities, trade and factories
Why did Jefferson want a small government? The nation should remain a land of small farmers and skilled craft workers
Did Jefferson and Hamilton agree? Why or Why not? They did not agree. Hamilton wanted a National Bank. Jefferson didn’t believe that the government had power for this under the Constitution.
What was the name Jefferson’s political party? What did it favor? Democratic-Republicans – favored weaker, less active federal government
What was the name of Hamilton’s Political Party? What did it favor? Federalists – favored a strong, active federal government
Did Washington think that the Political parties would help or hurt the country? He felt their disagreements would be destructive to the nation’s government
Who decided to move the nation’s capital? To where was it moved? Congress – District of Columbia, along the Potomac River, close to Washington’s home.
When was the nation’s capital renamed to Washington D.C.? After George Washington’s Death
Who did Washington choose to design the new capital? L’Enfant- He fought in the American Revolution; he was an artist and engineer; Banneker was an astronomer who could help determine latitude and longitude
What was the state of the capital when the federal government moved there? It had few buildings, the streets were muddy. The plaster of the White House was still wet when John Adams was president.
What did Dolley Madison like and dislike about political parties? How were these views similar and dissimilar to George Washington’s? She liked to know the different points of view. Neither liked the arguments.
What were the 2 political parties described by Thomas Jefferson? The first description is the Federalists. The second description is of the Democratic-Republicans
When was Thomas Jefferson inaugurated? Which President was he? He was inaugurated as the 3rd president on March 4, 1801
What did Jefferson state in his inaugural address? That we should work together for the good of the country even though there were different opinions
What did Jefferson do as President? As a Democratic-Republican, he lowered taxes, as well as reduced the size of the government and armed forces
Who were the people that crossed the Appalachian Mountains? Why did they do this? Pioneers crossed in search of fertile land
How did the geography of the Cumberland Gap affect westward movement? What was the name of the path used? This was a valley that made travelling through the mountains easier. Pioneers and Native Americans had chosen this route long ago. The road used was Wilderness Road.
What happened when Pioneers encountered Native Americans? They clashed because Pioneers moved onto land that Native Americans believed was their traditional home.
What was the frontier? The edge of the Pioneers’ settlements as they kept moving more and more west
Who was Daniel Boone? A pioneer who was a skilled woodsman. He led other pioneers along Wilderness Road, which cut through the Appalachian Mountains from Virginia to Kentucky.
Where were the Pioneers’ Settlements located? How did they make money? Along the Ohio-Mississippi River Valley; they shipped wheat, pigs and other products to the port of New Orleans so that they could get their products to Europe
How did Spain affect the Pioneers’ trading to Europe? They controlled the Louisiana territory (land West of the Mississippi River), which included the port of New Orleans. In October 1802, they closed this port to American trade.
Who took control of the Louisiana territory from Spain? What Year? France; 1803
How did the Louisiana Purchase come to be? President Jefferson was concerned about the closing of the port of N.O.. Monroe was sent to Paris to try to buy New Orleans for $2 million. Napoleon Bonaparte needed money for wars he was fighting, so he sold the Louisiana territory for $15 million
Why was the Louisiana Purchase significant? This doubled the size of the nation by adding land from the Mississippi river to the Rocky Mountains
How was the Louisiana Territory Explored? Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis ( an army captain) for this. Lewis chose William Clark to come along. They kept record of soil, plants, mineral, animals and climate. Travel conditions were poor. They men were resourceful, strong, and courageous.
What were the 3 goals that Jefferson set for Lewis and Clark’s expedition? 1. Search for a water route to the Pacific Ocean (because it’s easier to move goods and people along water rather than over rocky, mountainous land) 2. Establish relationships with Native Americans 3. Record observations about the region
What was the result of Lewis and Clark’s expedition? It was successful, so the population continued to increase. Towns were created, and homes and farms were built.
How did the War between Britain and France affect the US? 1. Neither country wanted supplies from the US. 2. Britain seized US sailors claiming they were deserters from the British Navy, and American ships 3. It caused great tension between Britain and the US.
How did Jefferson feel about the war between Britain and France? He wanted to remain neutral because he said that “Peace is our Passion.”
What was happening in the Northwest Territories? The Shawnee leader, Tecumseh, aided by the British united Native Americans against pioneer settlements. He felt pioneers took Native American land and oppressed them.
What was the name of the Battle between the US and Tecumseh’s soldiers? What happened? The Battle of Tippecanoe was a victory for the US. It weakened Tecumseh’s standing with Native Americans
When did James Madison become President? He became the 4th President in 1809
Who were the War Hawks? They wanted war with Britain for two reasons. 1. To end the British-supported attacks against settlers on the Northwestern frontier 2. To drive the British out of Canada
Did President James Madison want war with the British? No
Why did Henry Clay say “you had better abandon the ocean!”? He felt that if the US did not fight Britain, they would not be able to sail on the Atlantic Ocean for trade
Did James Madison declare war on Britain? Why? Yes, instead of negotiating a treaty, he declared war because of the British attacks. He also wanted to make Canada part of the US
What was significant about the battles at sea during the War of 1812? They were dramatic. British cannonballs seemed to bounce off of the sides of the American warship Constitution. This is the navy’s oldest ship. It is nicknamed “Old Ironsides.”
What happened in 1814 during the British-American War? The US was not prepared to defend Washington DC. The British took control of Washington DC in August 1814. They burned the Capitol and the President’s House. This disrupted the national government. Important Historical documents were carried to safety.
What happened at Fort Mc Henry? This was a harbor in Baltimore that was prepared for defense. A battle took place here that the US won
Who was Francis Scott Key? He watched the Battle of Fort Henry from a ship. He saw the US flag still flying over the Fort in the morning, and wrote a poem on the back of the envelope. This poem was later set to music and became “The Star-Spangled Banner,” our national anthem
What happened in the Battle of New Orleans? The British wanted to attack the port of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson led the American militia to victory.
When was the treaty ending the War of 1812 signed? Two weeks before the Battle of New Orleans. The news did not cross the Atlantic ocean in time, so the Battle of New Orleans should not have been fought.
What were the results of the War of 1812? Britain and France stopped interfering with US shipping. The US never gained control of Canada. The US showed that it could defend itself on land and at sea. The war had fewer effects than expected.

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