Anthro 102

Question Answer
DNA replication strands Leading strandLagging strand
Who influenced Darwin Thomas Malthus
Genetic drift examples Founder effectBottleneck effect
What are somatic cells Any cell other than cells that aid in sexual reproduction
Haploid vs diploid Haploid cells/germ cells are to do with sexual reproduction (1 pair of 23 chromosomes – 1 pair from Mum, 1 from dad).Diploid cells are 2 sets of 23 chromosomes (somatic cells, used in body growth and repair).
Two processes of cell reproduction MitosisMeiosis
What is a genotype? Coding for a specific trait (bB = heterozygous dominant, bb = homozygous recessive).
What is a phenotype? Visible trait (bB = brown eyes, bb = blue eyes).
What is an allele? Variation of a gene a?? (the letters that make up a genotype, b/B for example). Recessive (b) and dominant (B).
What are polygenic characters? Multiple genes affect a single phenotype (a lot of genes may code for blue eyes).
What is pleiotropy? One gene may code for more than one trait (genes may code for blue eyes.
Can pleiotropy co-occur with polygenic traits? Yes – a lot of genes may make up blue eyes but, one of those genes may also partially code for brown hair.
Do genes interact with the environment? Yes – it is hard in some cases to differentiate between genetic effect and environmental effect(s). (Diet increasing height or genetic coding for height?).
Does heritability consistently result in genetic change passed down? No – environmental factors come into account too.
What is the Hardy-Weinberg Law? [p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1]a??> p = dominant, q = recessive.This relates the frequency of alleles to genotypes
What is a gene pool? Sum of alleles in a population.
Who is Gregor Mendel? Creator of Mendelian genetics
What is Mendelian genetics? A way to test if change is occurring.If Mendelian conditions apply then the population composition will remain constant.
What is stabilising selection? Selection of a medium between two extremes eliminated over time (underweight and overweight babies die more) -> normal weight babies favoured.
What is Tristan da Cunha an example of? Founder effect a??> genetic drift
What is genetic drift? A random shift of gene frequencies a??> more or less genetic variation.
What is disruptive selection? A context where extremes of a trait are likely to survive more, therefore the opposite of stabilising selection. Exploiting different perks of their two extremes.
What is directional selection? A gradual trend. (Increase in brain size over time). This is hard to prove.
What is Epigenetics? Specific genes are activated as your body requires them. (If a muscle gene is required then a liver gene is turned off, vice versa). This is how DNA is read and shown.
What is the Dutch Famine? An example of epigenetics in humans. Mothers condition affects a child thata??s been born a??> born with side effects due to the epigenetics from the mother. a??> trans-generational transfer.
What is trans-generation transfer? Transfer of genes through generations.
What is reproductive isolation? Two populations that fail to breed.
Modes of speciation? Anagenesis and Cladogenesis.
When can speciation occur? Can occur in one lineage but anagenesis not typically regarded as real speciation.
What forms are associated with Cladogenesis? Parapatric speciation (Hard for reproductive isolation) and allopatric speciation (Reproductive isolation occurs).
What is convergence? Development of small characteristics/adaptions in animals that differ in direct ancestry.
What is parallelism? Development of similar traits from shared ancestry.
What is adaptive radiation? When a new adaptation/new environment opens up & species diversify to fill new slots opening up in an environment.
How many primate species are there? Over 500.
What is social behaviour? A dynamic interplay of inter-individual strategies.
What are bilophodont(s)? Sharp crests on molars
What is bonodont? A generalist diet (humans).
What is homodonty? Roughly same shape teeth.
What is heterodonty? Different teeth shape.
Is fossilisation a guaranteed process? No. Very specific process.
What is bipedalism? Walking on two feet. Something that requires a lot of biological adaptation.
Why do women have wider hips? For childbearing.
Linear rate of evolution.
What is the punctuated equilibrium tempo? Graph of a??stepsa?? indicating rapid periods of evolution at times of speciation but relatively constant otherwise.
What is a gradualist tempo?
What is the typical layout for teeth in old world monkeys, humans, and apes? 2:1:2:3 (Incisors -> canines -> premolars -> molars)
What is the typical tooth layout for new world monkeys? 2:1:3:3 (Incisors -> canines -> premolars -> molars)
What is the Sagittal crest? Bony top part of the skull, like a ridge.
What is post-orbital constriction? The skull seems to get narrower behind the eye sockets before widening out again, skull ends up looking like an ohm symbol from the top view.
What is parapatric speciation? One species. Neighbouring populations. Different behaviours.
What is allopatric speciation? Separated species. Split. Barrier to gene flow. Reproductive isolation.
What is Cladogenesis? A form of speciation.
What is the brain size (cc) of Homo sapiens? ~1300cc
Brain size of Homo ergaster? ~700cc
Brain size of Homo erectus? ~900cc
What is a pan troglodyte? Common chimpanzee.
What is a pan paniscus? Bonobo.
Brain size of Homo neanderthalensis ~1500cc
Do modern Homo sapiens have any Sagittal crest, brow ridge, postorbital constriction? No.
Brain size of Australopithecines? ~420-500cc
What is ethnology? the study of the characteristics of different peoples and the differences and relationships between them.
What is ethnography? the scientific description of peoples and cultures with their customs, habits, and mutual differences.
What is the a??Out of Africaa?? model? We originated from Africa, two waves of geographical diversification, first wave (130-115,000 years ago) died out. ~77,000 years ago = second wave a??> Southern route, coastline of Asia.

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