bio lecture exam exam study guide

Question Answer
What is biology? the study of living organisms and the science of life.
Be able to list the 7 properties of life. cellular organization–,homeostasis– metabolism.– responsiveness–. reproduction–. heredity– .growth..
Be familiar with the levels of organization and that the cell is the basic unit of life. atom- molecules-organelles-cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-population- specie-community
Know the steps in the scientific method. Observation- questions-Hypothesis Prediction-Experimentation-retest and conclusion
What is a theory? A set of assumptions, propositions, or accepted facts that attempts to provide a plausible or rational explanation of cause-and-effect
What is matter – any substance that has mass and occupies space
what is the smallest building block of matter? atom
Be familiar with the components of an atom proton, neutron, and electron
proton positively charged particles
neutron, neutral particles
electron) negatively charged particle
What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass atomic number = number of protons in the nucleus of an atom The sum of protons and neutrons is the atom’s atomic mass
What is an ion? charged atoms.
What is the difference between a cation and an anion cation– have more protons than electrons and are positively charged (Na+1) anion– have more electrons than protons and are negatively charged (Cl-1)
ionic bond are formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions.
covalent bond form when atoms share two or more valence electrons
What are some things that can affect the occurrence of a chemical reaction? -temperature = heating -concentration of reactants and products -availability of a catalyst
dehydration synthesis : formation of large molecules by the removal of water
hydrolysis : breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water
acid a chemical that releases H+ ions.
base. a chemical that accepts H+ ions.
Why are buffers important? Buffer: a chemical that accepts/releases H+ as necessary to keep pH constant
What are the 4 types of biologically important molecules Carbohydrates–Lipids–Proteins–Nucleic Acids
what are the monomers of each one? for carbohydrates=Glucose–lipids= hydrocarbons and glycerol—. proteins=amino acids—nucleic acids=nucleotides.
Be familiar with various functions of proteins 1.enzyme catalysts–2. defense–3. transport– 4. support–5. motion– 6. regulation–7. storage
What gives a protein its function the shape of a protein determines its function.
How are triglycerides important in the body? they are fats that give you energy between meals
What is the difference between starch and glycogen? starch- is made up of two moleculesglycogen-only has one
Be familiar with the Cell Theory. All organisms are composed of cells, Cells are the smallest living things.and the basic unit of life. Cells arise only from preexisting cells.
All cells have 3 things in common. What are they? genetic material–cytoplasm –. plasma membrane . cytoplasm
prokaryotic Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) contain a nucleoid
eukaryotic – Eukaryotic cells (humans) contain a nucleus
Know the function of each organelle. The bit and parts of a cell is called the organelle Organisms are composed of cells, and these cells have specific structures within in them that allow them to carry out their functions. These structures are called Organelles.
What is the endomembrane system a series of membranes throughout the cytoplasm– endoplasmic reticulum– Golgi apparatus– lysosomes–vesicles
What is the fluid mosaic model? -phospholipids arranged in a bilayer-globular proteins inserted in the lipid bilayer
Know the difference between passive and active transport (2 things) passive transport = is movement of molecules through the membrane in which-no energy is required-molecules move in response to concentration gradient Active transport-requires energy – Active transport-moves substances from low to high concentration
diffusion the spreading of something more widely.
osmosis, a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
facilitated diffusion is movement of a molecule from high to low concentration with the help of a carrier protein.
hypertonic, has a higher solute concentration
hypotonic has a lower solute concentration
phagocytosis the cell takes in particulate matter
pinocytosis the cell takes in only fluid
receptor-mediated endocytosis specific molecules are taken in after they bind to a receptor
1,Cellular organization all organisms consist of one or more cells
2 Ordered complexity all living things are both complex and highly ordered
Sensitivity all organisms respond to stimuli
Growth, development, and reproduction all organisms are capable of growing and reproducing; possession of hereditary molecules that are passed on to offspring
Energy utilization all organisms take in energy and use it to perform many kinds of work
Homeostasis all organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions
Evolutionary adaptation = all organisms interact with other organisms and their nonliving environment and adapt to ensure survival
What are the unifying themes in biology? Cell theory- All living organisms are made of cells, and all living cells come from preexisting cells.
What are the unifying themes in biology? Molecular basis of inheritance- DNA encodes genes which control living organisms and are passed from one generation to the next.
What are the unifying themes in biology? Structure and Function-The proper function of a molecule is dependent on its structure.-The structure of a molecule can often tell us about its function.
What are the unifying themes in biology? Evolutionary change- Living organisms have evolved from the same origin event. The diversity of life is the result of evolutionary change.
What are the unifying themes in biology? Evolutionary conservation- Critical characteristics of early organisms are preserved and passed on to future generations.
What are the unifying themes in biology? Cells – information processing systems- Cells process information stored in DNA as well as information received from the environment.
What are the unifying themes in biology? Emergent properties- New properties are present at one level of organization that are not seen in the previous level.

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