Biology chapter 10 AP Biology chapter 10, Campbell

Question Answer
Noncyclic electron flow a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP NADPH and oxygen the net electron flow is from water to NADP+
cyclic electron flow A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem 1 and that process produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen
Glyceralaehyde 3 phosphate G3P The carbohydrate produced directly from the Calvin cycle
carbon fixation The incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism.
rubisco Ribulose carboxylase place the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle
reduction The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction
C3 plants A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material forming a 3 carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
photorespiration A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide generates no ATP and decreases photosynthetic output .
bundle sheath cells a type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheets around the veins of a leaf
mesophyll cells A loosely arranged photosinthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
PEP carboxylase an emzyme that adds carbon dioxide to phosphoenolpytuvate pep to form oxaloacetate.
crassulacean acid metabolism CAM Carbon dioxide entering open stromata during the night is converted into organic acid which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day when stomata are closed.
CAM plants A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism
photosynthesis The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants algae and certain prokaryotes
Autotrophs An organism that obtains organic foods molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make org molecules substances to org molecule
Heterotrophs An organism that obtains orgainc food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
chlorophyll A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy
mesophyll The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwitched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
stomata many stoma
stroma The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Thylakoids a flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
light reactions The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH evolving oxygen in the process.
Calvin cycle The second of the major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrates.
NADP+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucletide phosphate, an acceptor that temporarily stores energized electons produced during the light reactions.
carbon fixation The incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compund by an autrophic organism ( a plant, another photosnthetic organism, or achemoautotrophic prokaryote.
photophosphorylation The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a protonmotive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
wavelength The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
electromagnetic spectrum The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
visible light that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 759nm.
photons A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy.
spectrophotometer An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wace lengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
absorption spectrum The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
chlorophyll a A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
action spectrum A graph that depicts the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a partivular process.
chlorophyll b A type of yellow -green accssory photosunthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
carotenoids An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange,in the chloroplasts if plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
photo system 11 PS 11 One of 2 light capturing units in a cholorplasts thylacoid membrane. It has 2 molecules of p680 Chlorophyll A at it's reaction center
photosystem 1 PS 1 one of 2 light capturing units in a chloroplasts thylacoid membrane. It has 2 molecules of P700 cholorphyl a at it's reaction center
photosystem light capturing unit located in the thylacoid membrane of the chloroplast consisting of a reaction center surrounded by numerous light harvesting complexes
light harvesting complex complex of protiens associated with pigment molecules that captures light energy and transfers it to reaction center pigments in a photo system
reaction center complex of proteins associated with two special chlorophyll, a molecules and a primary electron eceptor. located centaly in a photo system, this complex trigers the light reactions of photosynthesis
primary electron accepter A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction center chlorophyll a molecules it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls.

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