Biology Chapter 3

Question Answer
cell theory the theory that states that all living things are made up of cells, that cells are basic units of organisms, that each cell in a multicellular organism has a specific job, and that cells come from only existing cells
cytoplasm the region of cell within the membrane that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
organelle one of the small bodies that are specialized to perform a specific function
prokaryotic cell cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotic cell cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
cytoskeleton the cytoplasm network of protein filaments that plays as essential role in cell movement, shape, division
nucleus in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cells DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
endoplasmic reticulum a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
ribosome the cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
Golgi apparatus a call organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
vesicle a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
vacuole organelle that is used to store materials such as water, food, or enzymes, that are needed by the cells
lysosome organelle that contains enzymes
centriole small cylinder-shaped organelle made up of protein tubes arranged in color; aids mitosis
cell wall rigid structure that gives protection, support, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria
chloroplast an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
cell membrane double-layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
fluid mosaic model model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selective permeability condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross barrier or membrane
receptor protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
passive transport the movement of substances across the cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
diffusion the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
concentration gradient a difference in concentration of a substance across a distance
osmosis the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through the membrane that is permeable to the solvent
isotonic solution that has an equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
hypertonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
hypotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
facilitated diffusion the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
active transport the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis the process my which the cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
phagocytosis uptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle
exocytosis the process by which a substance is released from a cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out

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