Biology Quiz 2

Question Answer
Phylogeny Evolutionary history of a specific group of organisms
Advantage of fossils Can date using radioactive isotope decay and give the best timelines
Disadvantage of fossils Rare complete specimen and soft tissues does not fossilize: Convergent Evolution can cause problems as well
Evolution does not go _________ Backwards
Tissues with _________ mineral content fossilize ________ than _______ tissues high; better; soft
Paleontologists spend lots of time_____________ looking at the anatomy of living creatures
There is _______ geologic record older than _____ billion years ago little ; 3.5 billion
Early crust was not very ______ or ______ solid; thick
When did self replicating organic molecules appear? 3.5 billion years ago
Miller and Urey Experiment primitive atmosphere created with amino acids formed
The Sun was only ______ % as powerful as it is now 70
There was no _______ to protect from _______ rays but the _______ _______ protected ozone ; UV; ice caps
Cold temperature of the early earth ________ down chemical reactions and ______ compound stability slowed; increased
RNA single strand of nucleic acid connected by ribose backbone; perform enzymatic activity; code for proteins and catalyze chemical reactions; highest rate of mutation due to no second strand
Cell membranes encasing of self replicating activity; protects genetic material from unwanted reactions with outside world
Eukaryotic cells 2 billion years ago; mitochondria and chloroplasts have own set of chromosomes and can self replicate independently
Sexual Reproduction 1.2 billion years ago; increased new combinations of genes
Rodinia broke into __________ and __________ Laurentia and Gondwana
Stromalites __________ 600 mya and this corresponds to the _______ of soft bodied animals decreased; increased
When did arthropods and jawless fish evolve? Cambrian Period
1st Mass Extinction Event Laurentia broke into small islands and loss of habitat along Equator killed many species; This led to adaptive radiation for new survivors to take the opened niches
When did wingless hexapods evolve? 440 million years ago
Stiff-winged insects 1st flying insects; modern dragonflies have these
2nd Mass Extinction Event 360 million years ago; many marine invertebrates disappeared; coal deposits appeared afterwards
When did folded wings evolve? Late Carboniferous Period about 300 million years ago
When did reptiles evolve from amphibians and what were their advantages 320 mya; evolved tough skin, amniotic eggs with calcified shells
Synapsids gave rise to _______ mammals
Diapsids give rise to _____ dinos, lizards, snakes, crocodilians
Pangea formed 280 mya
3rd Mass Extinction Event 252 mya; 95% of terrestrial and 98% of marine species disappeared; caused by formation of Pangea
Hypothesis = Very Cold Formaldehyde + cyanide + ammonia —–> glycine; lattice = Ice; Energy source = Deep sea vent; Protection from UV light = ice
Hypothesis = Very Hot Carbon monoxide + methane —-> Acetic Acid; Lattice = pyrite; Energy source = deep sea vents/ volcanoes; Protection from UV light = pyrite
Hypothesis = Just Right 2 Aldehyde phosphates —-> sugar phosphate ; Lattice – graphite, ice; Energy = Earth volcano beside pond; UV protection
1. Flight insects 2. Sexual Reproduction3. Ossified skeletons4. Flight in reptiles 2,3,1,4
Tethys Sea formed along the ________ and became a cradle of _______ _______ for marine animals Equator; adaptive radiation
_________ beat mammals at radiating in open niches dinosaurs
What became the most successful group of vertebrates to ever walk on land/fly dinosaurs
End of Triassic Period led to the ________ in species diversity in ________ ecosystems decline; marine
Jurassic Period, which was _________ mya continued the adaptive radiation of _________ 200-146; reptiles
1st feather dinosaurs appeared… 150 mya
The shark diversity _________ as the icthyosaur diversity _________ because of _______ _________. increased; decreased; competitive exclusion
Placental mammals appeared first in _________ _________ north pangea
The break up of Pangea sped up during the ___________ ________ Cretaceous Period (146-65 mya)
When the Atlantic Ocean forms, this created ________ niches for _______ life. More; aquatic
When did flowering plants appear? 127 mya
When did grass appear? 66 mya
When did dinosaurs go extinct? 65 mya during the 4th MEE
What ruled grasslands when they appeared after the 4th MEE large, flightless, predatory birds
How old was the oldest hominoid found in Egypt 35 mya
Pliocene Epoch 5 mya and had the greatest number of birds and mammals in Cenozoic Era
How long was the average species lifetime during the early Pliocene Epoch about 1.5 million years but now it is 45 thousand years
Hominins humans and bipedal relatives
Gorillas are closed related to ______ and ______ than orangutans Chimps and humans
Bipedalism walk upright on rear appendages; back and hips support all body weight; legs longer than arms
Behavior Responding to a stimulus; all living things do this; can be hardwired genetically; evolves through natural selection
Learning ability to modify behavior based on experiences
Ethology Study of behavior; common patterns
Stereotypic specific response to specific stimulus always occurs; hardwired
Three components …. 1. sign stimulus; 2. Innate releasing mechanism3. fixed action pattern (response behavior)
Two causations for behavior Proximate = sign stimulus that triggered behaviorUltimate = big evolutionary advantage to behavior
Phototaxis movement in response to light
Mechanotaxis movement in response to physical contact
Chemoresponse chemical response to physical contact/damage
Intelligence ability to learn and solve problems
Insight ability to visualize problems and its solution
When is learning at its best during the critical period
Five functions of communication 1. warning to predator; 2. warning to others;3. advice to others;4. advertisement of reproduction condition;5. territoriality
Low pitches have _____ wavelengths that travel ______ before fading long; further
Ability to locate where sounds originate is dependent on ______ _______ being able to __________ on noise source nervous system; triangulate
Alarm calls show relationship between ____ _____ and _____ properties selective pressures; sound
Humans have _______ olfactory communication poor
in olfactory communication the odor binds to _______ receptor and then _____ _____ to nervous system specific; sends signal
Pheromones odor molecules used for communication; can stay in area if left behind by animal
The human language is a combination of ________ and ________ auditory; visual
Information encoded visually through color, patter, and movement
Tactile communication information encoded via location touch; appendage used to touch; intensity ; pattern of touching
Taste and smell share same __________ origin embryonic
Territory area that will defend against incursion and used by others; maintain exclusive use of some resource
home range area animal visits in given time period
Functions of territoriality spacing of individuals to decrease competition, predation, parasitism; stability set then individual only do minimal behavior display
Territoriality behavior needs to peak when resource at __________ benefit maximum

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