Carb metab 2 first week endocrine second carb lecture

Question Answer
what's the energy for anabolic processes provided by? hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and Pi
what does the pentose phosphate pathway allow you to make and what does this act as? allows you to make NADPH which acts as a natural antioxidant
what's the important ingredient in the pentose phosphate pathway? glucose-6-phosphate
what two important pathways can glucose 6 phosphate be used for? glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway – the relevant enzymes are switched on/off depending on which one it's going to be used for
how is the pentose phosphate pathway important for the synthesis of fatty acids? generation of NADPH for reductive biosynthesis
how is the pentose phosphate pathway important for nucleotides (RNA, DNA) formation of ribose-5-phosphate
what's the committed step in the pentose phosphate pathway? dehydrogenation of glucose 6-phosphate is the committed step
what's glycogen synthesised from and where? from glucose in liver
why is glycogen in the liver? storage for blood glucose maintenance, built up in the fed state, then in fasting state it is released into the bloodstream
why is glycogen in muscle ? storage for local energy production (only used by muscle itself) muscle glycogen can't be converted back into glucose and be used in other tissues
what is glycogen? a polymer of glucose – most tissues can store some form of glycogen, even in the brain. But neurons can only rely on glycogen stores for about a second so not useful
describe glycogen's structure feather like structure – chains of glucose with linkage between. To maintain the glycogen granules you have to have a lot of water complexed with it
what happens if you lose glycogen? you respire water out – so with fad diets you get impressive weight loss first week but its just water
what converts glucose into glucose 6 phosphate? hexokinase
what changes glucose 6 phosphate to glucose 1 phosphate Phospho-glucomutase

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