cell structure

Question Answer
the smallest unit of life cell
first to observe cells; gave cells their name Robert Hooke
first to observe living cells Anton van Leeuwenhoek
first to introduce the idea that all living things are made up of cells Schleiden and Schwann
first to introduce the idea that cells are created from other preexisting cells Rudolf Virchow
theory that all living things are composed of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function of living organisms, and that all cells come from other living cells cell theory
What did Robert Hooke observe and where did he find this observation? Hooke observed cell walls of dead plant cells in thin pieces of cork.
How did cells get their name? The cells reminded Hooke of the little rooms at the monasteries, or cells
What did Leeuwenhoek observe? Living cells under a microscope. (algae, protozoa, bacteria, red blood cells, and many other microorganisms in pond water)
Why are smaller cells more efficient? 1) Higher surface area-to-volume ratio2) materials can be transported to all parts of a cell more quickly than inside larger cells
What did Schieden conclude? that plants are made of cells
What did Schwann conclude? that animals are made of cells
What did Virchow recognize? that cells originate from cells
microscope that uses 2 lens to focus light and to magnify an objectcan see movements of a living cellviewed in colorpoor resolution easy to use fairly inexspensive compound light microscope
the ability of a microscope to see detail resolution
electron microscope that focuses electrons through an object and produces a two dimensional imagesample must be very thin so electrons can pass through it transmission electron microscope
electron microscope that uses electrons to scan the surface of an object and produces a three-dimensional image uses electrons to "scan" the surface if the object scanning electron microscope
a barrier that separates a cell from its surroundings semi or selectively permeable cell membrane
molecules in a cell that contain genetic information DNA
simple cells that do not have a nucleus; this type of cell is found in bacteria prokaryotic
cells that contain a true nucleus and make up all other organisms other than bacteria eukaryotic
long, hairlike filament that some single-celled organisms use to propel them forward flagella
microscope that has a greater resolution that a light microscope because it focus of beams electrons instead of lightmagnify an object 500,000 times more than actual sizebetter resolution and clearer images than light microscopeorganism cannot be al electron microscope
short, hairlike projections that some cells use for movemnt cilia
carries out specific activities in a cell oraganelles
-double membrane-has DNA to make more of itself-produces energy for the cell (AKA powerhouse) mitochondria
-contains information needed to make proteins-membrane with pores-has chromatin- where the nucleolus is located -controls all cellular processes nucleus
uncoiled DNA chromatin
-double membrane-has its own DNA to maximize photosynthesis -only found in plants-contains chlorophyll -produces starch chloroplasts
-network of very thin protein fibers-micro tubules -micro-filament-helps the cell keep its shape and maybe apart of the way a cell moves cytoskeleton
makes ribosomes nucleolus
-builds proteins-found in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes
-transport materials within the cell- may have a rough appearance because they have ribosomes attached endoplasmic reticulum
transports proteins rough endoplasmic reticulum
builds lipids for growth of cell membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What is the difference between smooth and rough ER? Rough ER has ribosomes attached to it
-internal fluid that shapes and gives support to the cell and its organelles cytoplasm
-packaging and distribution center of the cellsends proteins and lipids outside of the cell -looks like a stack of pancakes-AKA complex body Golgi apparatus
What is the pathway of proteins? 1) nucleolus2)ribosome3) nuclear pore4) Rough ER5)Complex body6)release from cell
-used for storage -a large organelle in most plant cells that is filled mostly with water and helps to give the cell structural support vacuoles
-small organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzymes -breaks down and recycles worn out parts lysosmes
full of water=plump cell- increase in turgor pressuredepleted water=wilted cells – decreased turgor pressure-only found in plant cells central vacuole
-made up of cellulose-provides extra support for plant and fungus cells cell wall
a type of carbohydrate that is unique to plants;found in the cell walls of plants and is also called "fiber" cellulose
a process used by plants that converts light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose and oxygen photosynthesis
Do plant cells have lysomes? no(rarely)
Do animal cells have lysosomes? Yes
Do animal cells have vacuoles? None or small
What is an important part of the human diet? cellulose or "fiber"
What percentage does the central vacuole take up in a plant cell? 50% or more
What kind of vacuole does a single-celled or organism use to help control fluid balance in the cell? contractile vacuole
an eukaryotic cell that has many organelles with different functions that is found in animals animal cell
one of the three domains of life containing single-celled prokaryotes in the kingdom bacteria bacteria
a cell that has nucleus and other membrane bound organelles eukaryotic
a cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles prokaryotic
a eukaryotic cell that has many organelles with different functions that is found in plants plant cell
a microscope membrane of lipids and proteins that forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell or encloses a vacuole and that regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the cell plasma membrane

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