CH.3 Science Vocabulary

Term Definition
Traits characteristics that an organism can pass on to itsoffspring through its genes
Heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
Genetics the scientific study of heredity
Purebred an organism that always produce offspring with the same form of traits as the parent
Genes factors that control traits
Alleles different forms of a gene
Dominant Allele the allele whose traits always show up in the organism when the allele is present
Recessive Allele the allele whose trait will only show if the organism does not have the dominant allele
Hybrid an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Gregor Mendel 1851- "Father of Genetics"
Probability the likelihood that a particular event will happen
Punnett Square a chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype an organisms physical appearance
Genotype an organisms genetic makeup or allele combinations
Homozygous an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Codominance the condition in which neither of the two alleles of a gene are dominant or recessive
Meiosis the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells–sperm and eggs
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance according to the chromosome theory of inheritance genes are carried from parent to offspring on chromosomes
Gametes a fancy word for sex cells
Sperm a male sex cell
Egg a female sex cell
Chromosome a rod shaped cell structure made of condensed chromatin that contains DNA, which carries the genetic information that controls inherited characteristics such as eye color and blood type
Chromatin material in cells that contains DNA and carries genetic information

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