Question Answer
bedouins nomadic Arab peoples who lives in bands in the Arabian Peninsula's desert
Muhammad founder of Islam
hegira Muhammads journey from Mecca to Medina
Islam religion founded by Muhammad, literally to "surrender"
Muslims followers of Islam
Qur'an sacred text of Islam, considered Allah's direct revelation
Five pillars of Islam obligations required of all muslims
mosque name for the building where Muslims worship
jihad word that can be translated as "struggle for the faith" or"holy war" and can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community or convert people to Islam
Abu Bakr successor to Muhammad as leader of Islam
caliphs title given to leader of Islam after Muhammad, mean "successors"
caliphate area ruled by a caliph
Umayyad a powerful clan from Mecca whose struggle to regain control led to civil war
Sunnis Muslims who accepted the Umayyad caliph
Shia supporters of Muhammad's cousin, Ali, who refused to accept the Umayyad caliph
Sufis a group within Islam that seeks a mystical, personal connection with God
Abbasid family that ruled Islam after the Umayyads list control
Harun al-Rashid most prominent Abbasid caliph, helped Muslim culture reach greatness
Ibn Rushd Muslim scholar who writings on the relationship between reason and faith influenced Muslim, Christian, and Jewish thinking in the 1400's
astrolabe instrument for finding the positions and movements of stars and planets
Ibn Sina Persian doctor who was a famous medical scholar, also contributed to the fields of logic music, and phycology
Ibn Khaldun Muslim scholar who wrote a history of the world in the 1300's
calligraphy beautifully styled writing that is a distinctive feature of Islamic Art
minarets tall towers found on mosques from which the faithful were called to prayer
Rumi poet, Sufi mystic, and founder of an order known as the Whirling Dervishes
Omar Khayyam author of a collection of four line poems called the Rubaiyat

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