Chapter 13

Question Answer
Charlemagne King of France, also crowned Emperor of the Roman people in 800
Papal States A region in central Italy ruled by the Pope
Counts Officials chosen by Charlemagne to rule parts of his empire in his name
Navigation planning a course of travel, such as the Vikings crossing the sea
Sagas Long Icelandic stories about great heroes and events
Leif Eriksson Viking who led settlers to the eastern shores of what is no Canada
Knights Highly skilled soldiers who fought on horseback
Fief Land given to a knight in exchange for his services
Vassal A person who accepts a fief from a lord
Feudal system The political and social system of exchanging land for service
Fealty A knights loyalty to the lord who gives him land
Manorial System An economic system built around large estates called manors
Serfs People who were legally tied to a manor on which they worked
Alfred the Great First king of United England and who drove out the Vikings
William the conqueror Duke of Normandy, conquered England in 1066
Domesday Book The record of William's survey of England's people and their property
Eleanor of Aquitaine Powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him
Magna Carta Document that restricted the king of of England's power, considered to be the first step toward democracy in England
Parliment Governing body that was the result of the king's council in the 1260's and which still makes England's laws today
Hugh Capet First ruler from the Capetian dynasty that ruled and expanded France
Otto the Great Saxon Duke who became Emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor in the early 900's
Reconquista Christian leader's effort to retake the Iberian peninsula from the Moors
Piety A person's level of devotion to religion
Pope Gregory VII Pope who excommunicated Henry IV, showing that a Pope could stand up to the Emperor
Pontificate Term of office of a particular Pope
Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor who clashed with Pope Gregory VII in 1075

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