Chapter 13

Term Definition
Charlemagne King of France, also crowned Emperor of the Roman People in 800.
Papal states a region in central Italy ruled by the Pope.
counts officials chosen by Charlemagne to rule parts of his empire in his name.
navigation planning a course of travel such as the Vikings crossing the sea.
sagas long Icelandic stories about great heroes and events.
Leif Eriksson Viking who led settlers to the eastern shores of what is now Canada.
knights highly skilled soldiers who fought on horseback.
fief land given to a knight in exchange for his services.
vassal a person who accepts a fief from a lord.
fedual system the political/social system of exchanging land for services.
fealty a knight?s loyalty to the lord who gives him land.
manorial system an economic system built around large estates called manors.
serfs people who were legally tied to the manor on which they worked.
Alfred the Great first king of the united England and who drove put the Vikings.
William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy, conquered England in 1066.
Domesday book the record of William?s survey of England?s people and their property
Eleanor of Aquitaine powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him.
Magna Carta document that restricted the king of England?s power considered to be the first step toward democracy in England.
Parliament governing body that was the result of the king?s council in the 1260?s and which still makes England?s laws today.
Hugh Capet first ruler from the Capetian dynasty that ruled and expanded France.
Otto the Great Saxon duke who became emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor in the early 900?s.
Reconquista Christian leaders' effort to retake the Iberian peninsula from the Moors.
piety a person?s level of devotion to religion
Pope Gregory VII pope who excommunicated Henry IV, showing that a pope could stand up to the emperor.
pontificate term of office of a particular pope
Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor who clashed with Pope Gregory VII in 1075.

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