Chapter 3 section 3-3

Term Definition
traits characteristics that an organism can pass on to its offspring through gene
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
genetics the study of heredity
pure bread an organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
genes factors that control traits
alleles different forms of a gene
dominant alelles an allele who's trait always apears in a organism when the allele is present
recessive alleles an allele whose trait will only appear if the organism does not have a dominant allele
hybrid an organism who has two different alleles for a trait
note: Mendel 1851 "father of genetics
probability the likely hood that a certain event will occur
punnet square a chart that shows all the possible combinations as alleles
phenotype an organisms physical appearance
genotype an organisms genetic makeup
homozygous an organism that has two of the same alleles for a trait
heterozygouse an organism that has two different alleles for trait
codominance the condition where alleles are neither dominant or or recessive as a result both alleles are expressed in offspring
Meiosis the process that occurs in sex cells(sperm and egg)by which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half
Chromosome theory of inheritance genes are carried from parent to offspring on chromosomes
gametes a fancy word for sex cells
sperm male sex cell
egg female sex cell
chromatin material in cells that contains DNA and carries genetic informaton
chromosomes carry genes

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