chapter 9

Term Definition
bedouins nomadic Arab peoples who lived in bands in the Arabian Peninsulas desert
Muhammad founder of Islam
hegira Muhammad?s journey from Mecca to Medina
Islam religion founded by Muhammad ; literally ?to surrender?
Muslims followers of Islam
Qur?an sacred text of Islam , considered Allah?s direct revelation
Five Pillars of Islam obligations required of all Muslims
mosque name for the building where Muslims shop
jihad word that can be translated as ?struggle for the faith? or ?holy war? and can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community
Abu Bakr successor to Muhammad as leader of Islam
caliphs title given to leaders of Islam after Muhammad , means ?successors?
caliphate area ruled by a caliph
Umayyad a powerful clan from Mecca whose struggle to regain control led to civil war
Sunnis Muslims who accepted the Umayyad caliph
Shia supporters of Muhammad?s cousin Ali , who refused to accept the Umayyed caliph
Sufis a group within Islam that seek a mystical , personal connection with God
Abbasid family that ruled Islam after the Umayyads lost control
Harun al-Rashid most prominent Abbasid caliph , helped Muslim culture reach greatness
Ibn Rushd Muslim scholar who writings on the relationship between reason and faith influenced Muslim , Christian , and Jewish thinking into the 1400s
astrolabe instrument for finding the positions and movements of stars and planets
Ibn Sina Persian doctor who was a famous medical scholar , also contributed to the fields of logic , music , and psychology
Ibn Khaldun Muslim scholar who wrote a history of the world in the 1300s
calligraphy beautifully styled writing that is a distinctive feature of Islamic art
minarets tall towers found on mosques from which the faithful were called to prayer
Rumi poet , Sufi mystic , and founder of an order known as the Whirling Dervishes
Omar Khayyam author of a collection of four-line poems called The Rubaiyat

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