Chapter 9

Term Definition
bedouinss nomadic Arab peoples who lived in bands in the Arabian Peninsula?s desert.
Muhammad founder of Islam.
hergia Muhammad?s journey from Mecca to Medina.
Islam religion founded by Muhammad; literally ?to surrender?.
Muslims followers of Islam.
Qur?an sacred text of Islam, considered Allah?s direct revaluation.
Five Pillars of Islam obligations required of all Muslims.
mosque name for the building where Muslims worship.
jihad word that can be translated as ?struggle for the faith? or ?holy war? and can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community or convert people to Islam.
Abu Bakr successor to Muhammad as leader of Islam.
caliphs title given to leaders of Islam after Muhammad, mean successors.
caliphate area ruled by a caliph.
Umayyad a powerful clan from Mecca whose struggle to regain control led to civil war.
Sunnis Muslims who accepted the Umayyad caliph.
Shia supporters of Muhammad?s cousin Ali, who refused to accept the Umayyad caliph.
Sufis a group within Islam that seeks a mystical, personal connection with God.
Abbasid family that ruled Islam after the Umayyads lost control.
Harun al-Rashid most prominent Abbasid caliph, helped Muslim culture reach greatness.

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