civics final

Term Definition
13th amendment Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
14th amendment all persons born or naturalized in the United States which included former slaves recently freed.
15th amendment African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
19th amendment right for Woman to vote
22nd amendment limiting presidential terms to two for any one person, or to one elected term if the person has completed more than two years of another's term.
25th amendment allows for the Vice President to become president in the event of death, resignation, removal from office or impairment that prevents the current president from fulfilling his or her duties
caucuses closed meetings of party and each member elect a candidate
checks and balances limited powers each government has equal powers
chief diplomat help of advisors, the president makes the foreign policy of the United States. foreign governments.
chief executive highest-ranking in a company, and their primary responsibilities include making major corporate decisions, managing the overall operations and resources of a company
chief legislator When Congress does pass bills, the president reviews each bill and decides whether to sign it into law or veto it.
chief of state head of a nation as distinct from the head of the government.
city where declaration of independence was written July 4, 1776. On July 1, 1776, Philadelphia
closed primary A type of direct primary limited to registered party members, who must declare their party affiliation in order to vote.
commander in chief A type of direct primary limited to registered party members, who must declare their party affiliation in order to vote.
date of the declaration of independence 1817–1819
democracy control of an organization or group by the majority of its members.
disqualifications for voting murder, sexual offenses, or crimes against public administration involving bribery or improper influence
elastic clause the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers.
electoral college a body of electors chosen or appointed by a larger group.
executive branch powers include being able to veto, or reject, a proposal for a law; appoint federal posts, such as members of government agencies; negotiate foreign treaties with other countries
federal supreme court the highest body in the judicial branch.
federalism the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government
general assembly principal deliberative body of the United Nations, in which each member nation is represented and has one vote. The supreme governing body of some religious denominations.
governor roles/powers Signing or vetoing bills passed by the Legislature
how a bill becomes a law A legislative proposal that if passed by both the House and the Senate and approved by the President becomes law. Each bill is assigned a bill number. HR denotes bills that originate in the House and S denotes bills that originate in the Senate.
impeachment The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States" who may be impeached and removed only for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors"
interest groups Advocacy groups use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
judicial branch powers to interpret the Constitution and limit the powers of the other branches of government.
judicial review The power of courts to assess whether a law is in compliance with the constitution.
laws for voting prohibits voting practices and procedures that discriminate based on race, color, or membership in a language minority group
legislative branch powers includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. The main task of these two bodies is to make the laws.
limited goverment governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution. It is a key concept in the history of liberalism.
line of succession If the vice president cannot serve, the line of succession falls to the speaker of the House, then to the Senate president pro tempore,
magistrate a civil officer or lay judge who administers the law, especially one who conducts a court that deals with minor offenses and holds preliminary hearings for more serious ones
mayors and councils policy-making and administrative powers are vested in a usually elective mayor and council — compare council-manager plan, strong mayor, weak mayor.
naturalization Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. immigrant wants to become a united states citizen
new jersey plan equal votes per state, as desired
original jurisdiction The original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a lower court's decision.
pa. supreme court highets court
party symbols The Democratic Party's donkey and the Republican Party's elephant
political spectrum classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.
polling place the place where you vote.
population's role in congress Republicans 52Democrats 46Independents 2Total 100Republicans 240Democrats 194Vacancies 1Total 435
powers of congress Congress has authority over financial and budgetary matters, through the enumerated power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States.
powers of local government township, village, borough, city or town. Municipalities have municipal ordinances, which are laws, rules and they can create police stations and parks.
president of the state head of state and head of government of the United States of America. He directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
president qualifications The Constitution gives three eligibility requirements to be president: one must be 35 years of age, a resident "within the United States" for 14 years, and a "natural born Citizen," a term not defined in the Constitution.
presidential powers to sign or veto legislation, command the armed forces, ask for the written opinion of their Cabinet, convene or adjourn Congress, grant reprieves and pardons, and receive ambassadors.
primaries a preliminary election to appoint delegates to a party conference or to select the candidates for a principal, especially presidential, election.
purpose of the article of confederation
purpose of the constitution
purpose of the declaration of independence
purpose of the legislative branch
ratification of the constitution
representative democracy
right of accused
rights of legal immigrants
separation of powers
speaker of the house
state of the union
supremacy clause
the entire preamble to the constitution
voter motor act
voting regulations
ways to lose citizenship applying for and obtaining naturalization in a foreign country, provided the person is at least 18 years old, making an oath of allegiance to a foreign country, provided the person is at least 18 years old, serving in the military of a foreign country
weaknesses of the articles of confederation The major downfall of the Articles of Confederation was simply weakness. The federal government, under the Articles, was too weak to enforce their laws and therefore had no power. The Continental Congress had borrowed money to fight
what the articles of confederation did Articles of Confederation, 1777–1781. The Articles of Confederation served as the written document that established the functions of the national government of the United States after it declared independence from Great Britain.
writer of the declaration of independence Thomas Jefferson
amendment 1 freedom of religion and speech and the press
amendment 2 the right to bear arms
amendment 3 the housing of soldiers
amendment 4 protection from unreasonable searches and seizures
amendment 5 protection of right to life liberty and property
amendment 6 rights of accused persons in criminal cases
amendment 7 rights in civil cases
amendment 8 excessive bail fines and punishment forbidden
amendment 9 other rights kept by he people
amendment 10 undelegated powers kept by the states and the people

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