Cognitive Quiz 2

Question Answer
color constancy tendency for an object to always appear the same color no matter what the conditions are that we are viewing it in
sensation physical feeling resulting from something that happens to or comes into contact with the body
perception experiences resulting from stimulation of the senses
transduction translation of information from the environment into neuron signals
absolute threshold lowest level of a stimulus – light, sound, touch, etc. – that an organism could detect.
attentional capture salient and unattended stimulus draws attention, leading to awareness of its presence.
aperture problem refers to the fact that the motion of a one-dimensional spatial structure, such as a bar or edge, cannot be determined unambiguously if it is viewed through a small aperture such that the ends of the stimulus are not visible
retina rods detect white light
retina cones color and pigment
trichromacy processes in the retina
opponent process of color perception processes in the thalamus and visual cortex
Muller-Lyer illusion linear perspectives
McGurk Effect perceptual phenomenon demonstrates interaction between hearing/vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound.
Gestalt Principles of perception explain the way elements are grouped together to create larger objects,
fusiform face area (FFA) area that allows us to recognize faces
condition is caused when FFA is damaged prosopagnosia
four types of attention covert, overt, selective, divided
model of selection attention Broadbents selective attention, filter model of attention, diagram depicting the mind as processing information in a sequence of stages, how it is possible to focus on one message and why information isn’t taken in from the other message, bottle neck model
model of selection attention Tresiman Thresholds are individual, meaning that they are based on experience, language and meaning can also be used to separate the messages
Cognitive Resources ability to channel mental energy to focus
Cognitive Load total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory
Cognitive Resources and Cognitive Load relationship todistractibility filter, finite amount of resources, a lot of info is missed, variable
Stroop Task name, as quickly as possible, the color of ink used to print each of the shapes, determine how many seconds it takes to report the colors of all the shapes.
Inattentional Blindness + circumstances of occurance psychological lack of attention that is not associated with any vision defects or deficits. It may be further defined as the event in which an individual fails to perceive an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight.
Change Blindness + circumstances of occurance change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it. For example, observers often fail to notice major differences introduced into an image while it flickers off and on again
components of Feature Integration Theory + purpose when perceiving a stimulus, features are "registered early, automatically, and in parallel, while objects are identified separately" and at a later stage in processing
cocktail party effect The ability to focus on one stimulus while filtering out other stimuli, noisy parties people are able to focus on what one person is saying even if there are many conversations happening at the same time.
stroop effect effect occurs because the names of the words cause a competing response andtherefore slow responding to the target—the color of the ink. task-irrelevant stimuli are extremely powerful bc reading words is highly practiced/has become so automatic
divided attention attending to more than one thing
overt attention direct gaze, shifting attention from one place to another while keeping the eyes stationary
covert attention aware, looking out of the side of the eye, Shifting attention from one place to another by moving the eyes is called
prefrontal lobe top bottom processing, self guided
parietal lobe bottom up processing, salient, life threatening, where/how
selective attention spotlight
occipital lobe primary visual receiving area
temporal lobe how, auditory

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