Question Answer
Nationalism a clear and positive sense of national identity unifying a nation internally.
What are the two types of NAtionalism ethic/cultural and economic/civic
What were the beliefs of the nationalists? everyone is part of the nation (anti racism), progress should benefit everyone (public welfare) and industrialization and nationalization (against foreign control)
What was ethnic culturism transculuration is a positive and indigenous cultures should be celebrated.
Who was Jose Vasconcelos? Mexican intellectual envisioned mestizos as "the cosmic race"
Who was Jose Carlos Mariategui? Peruvian intellectual imagined an indigenous socialism both Marxist and Incan
Who was Candino Portinari Brazilian painter, made the Coffee Grower in 1934
Who was Jose Sabogal? Peruvian painter, made the Indian Mayor of Chincheros in 1925
Who was Nicolas Guillen? Cuban poet who wrote the Ballad of Two Grandfathers in 1935
Brief timeline of Mexico from 1910 – 1917 Francisco Madero wrote San Luis plan of Potosi in 1910, Porfirio Diaz flees 1911, Madero takes over in the Hacendado reform but Madero is killed in coup by Victoriano Huerta in 1913. 1914-20 three revolutionary groups built up. 1917 new ocnstitution
What were the three groups of the revolution in Mexico between 1914-1920 Francisco "Pancho" Villa led army of cowboys, oil field workers, railroad workers and miners in the north. Emiliano Zapata had a peasant guerilla army in the south and there were the constitutionalists who were urban middle class nationalist reformers
What was the plan of San Luis Potosi Document written by Francisco Madero and published in 1910 encouraging Mexicans to take up arms against the porfiriato.
Who was Francisco Madero Presidential candidate running against Diaz. Diaz had him imprisoned for fear he would lose and Madero subsequently escaped and fled to Texas where he gained mass support and wrote the PLan of San Luis. Gained presidency, was assassinated in 1913
Who was Francisco "Pancho" Villa revolutionary leader that sprouted an army at first in Chihuahua. then nationally. inspired cowboys, oilers, miners and more. killed by constitutionalists in 1923
Who was Emiliano Zapata? Indigenous revolutionary leader inspired by Madero, known for broad sombrero and large mustache. located in the south, led a "peasant guerilla army" killed by constitutionalists in 1919
Describe the Constitutionalists? connected, urban, middle class group in Mexico's 1910-17 Revolution, gained upper hand and drafted a new revolutionary constitution in1917. their political heirs controlled Mexico for the rest of the 1900's. Markedly anti foreign and anti clerical
What two articles stood out in the Constitution of 1917? Article 27 and Article `123
Article 123 wage and hour laws, pensions, social benefits and the right to unionize and strike
article 27 reclaimed national mineral rights from foreign owners and recovered lands for indigenous people.
What happened to the Constitutionalists in 1920 they became more conservative and consolidated their control
What happened in Uruguay in 1880 Major export boom
what happened in Uruguay in 1910 president Jose Batlle de Ordonez launched reform movement called batllismo.
Who was Jose Battle de Ordonez and what is the Battlismo president of Uruguay in 1910, launched a reform movement called Battlismo. economic and civic nationalism, most progressive in the world at that time.
Describe key points of the Battlismo Protectionism (tariffs), Nationalization of utilities, businesses and banks, First welfare state in hemisphere, support for public education (universities open to women) and anti clerical.
Import Substitution Industrialization Brought on w/ Great Dep. Latin American countries forced to produce more goods at home. Cut Neocolonialism and increased national pride. limited by lack of heavy industry (cars, machinery) and size of a countrys market
Who was Getulio Vargas? President of Brazil in Revolution of 1930 defeating coffee oligarchy after coffee. Factioned the political scene. Began authoritarian regime in 1937- Estado Novo. He was a populist, and was widely popular despite authoritarian. "father of the poor"
What countries beneiftted from ISI due to populous Argentina, Brazil and Mexico
What countries benefitted from ISI due to affluence Chile and uruguay
Estado Novo New State. Brazil under Getulio Vargas. repressive silencing of dissent and increasing government power. But he also redistributed wealth and enacting protections for workers. known as "father of the poor"
What does a strong central government usually equate to nationalism
What did most latin American POPULIST leaders share (characteristics) Charisma and "folksy" style w/ humble background, Inspirational speaking skills, message directed at poor & middle class, image of benevolent parental figure, radical rhetoric against elites, lack of clear left or right affiliation
Who was Victor Raul Haya de la Torre Peruvian nationalist/student activist. became leader of APRA and promoted indigenous culture. poor, working class and middle class attended meetings and many pledged loyalty to him. Apra never took power. military & group clashed
What is APRA an anti imperialist international party
Jorge Eliecer Guitan Colombian nationalist, never president, but huge following. Mestizo, humble background and charismatic. Popular speeches denouncing power and privelage. In 1948 his assassination sparked massive urban riots and years of violence
What were the massive riots sparked by the assassination of Jorge Eliecer Guitan called The Bogotazo
What were the two decades of violence in Colombia called from 1950-1970 La violencia. also sparked by the assassination of Jorge Eliecer Guitan. 200,000 were killed.
The Maximato series of "puppet presidents" in Mexico, controlled by former president Plutarco Elias Calles. Ended when Lazaro came into the presidency and maneuvered his way around calles' control
Lazaro Cardenas Cardenas nationalized oil and had massive popular support. sought to realize constitution of 1917
Who was Hipolito Yrigoen ousted argentinas land owning oligarchy in 1916. led the Radical Civic Union- a MODERATE middle class reformist party. symbolized shift in Argentine Politics- little actually accomplished. Overthrown in 1930. The military continued to rule Argentina
How did ISI affect Argentina from 1935-1946 working class more than doubled from 436,000- 1,056,000
Who was Juan Peron and Evita Juan was a military officer went from secretary of labor to presidency in 1946. populists supported by urban working class. Challenged elites. Eva was an actress and gained womens suffrage 1947, equal pay, was more popular than hub. died suddenly. Argent.
What did Peron do in Argentina as a populist and a nationalist challenged traditional elite, oversaw increase in labor organization, expanded social services, expanded central government, nationalized almost everything. after being overthrown his popularity continued ruling electorates "the Peronists"
What was the Comparitive advantage theory? the idea that Latin American countries were meant to be producers of low wage raw minerals. Theory backed by US economists.
What was the Dependency Theory? a return to neocolonial import/export was a step backwards and Latin America should continue to industrialize. (backed by Latin American economists)
Democratic Spring one last attempt at reform. consolidated the democracy in the few that already had it and transitioned to it in many other countries. Those that remained undemocratic felt effects and pressure to change. Threatened elites and exploitative labor systems.
What characterized the Democratic Spring? movement toward democratic governance, labor union organizing and militancy, leftist political activism
What did the reactions to the threats on elites in the democratic spring cause reversal of democratic progress. crackdown on labor unions, attacks on leftists/communists, formerly reformist governments began to shift to the right. democracy was extremely compromised
What did the 1950's bring to Latin America socioeconomic tension, disappointment at the end of the democratic spring and unchallenged us dominance
Cold War Bipolarity One side or the other. Communist or strictly anticommunist. No in between
In 1954 what did the United States declare? Any "pink activity" would be considered a foreign invasion
What is pink activity anything slightly communist. Not perfectly capitalist. Communistic blend.
In Guatemala what did the democratic spring look like? two democratically elected presidents Juan Jose Arevalo and jacobo arbenz for a decade. Worker and peasant organizations gained new freedom and The Guatemalan Communist Party enforced wishes of Arbenz
Who were the two presidents during Guatemalas Democratic Spring Juan Jose Arevalo and Jacobo Arbenz. Arbenz was more effective and followed Arevalo
What did Arbenz do? took land from huge corporations (included The United Fruit Company of Boston) redistributed it to some paesants (half a million), nationalized railroads.
Whats the story behind Arbenz and the United Fruit Company and the United States subsequent anger. When Arbenz retook land from the United Fruit Company- he paid for it. BUT he only paid the price per square foot that they had claimed on their taxes. Got the land for unspeakably cheap and acted as a fuck you to neocolonialism
Operation PBSUCCESS CIA orchestrated assassination of Arbenz. didn't complete assassination but caused Arbenz to flee. CIA claimed it as a win for anti-communism. they overthrew the order of a democratically elected president w/ affiliations to a communist party
The Frog and the Scorpion political ideology without reason. An action taken because "that's just what they do"
What is the MNR National Revolutionary Movement in Bolivia that took power in 1952. Nationalist as Arbemz but more communist.
Why didn't the US intervene in the revolution of Bolivia as it did Guatemala? Bolivia was farther away (Frog and Scorpion negated), fewer US business interests and the communist party was not as powerful. The US "constructively engaged" and sent aid. known as "hearts and mines campaign"
What is the Guatemalan Communist Party? Backed Arbenz during his reign, extremely strong politically, reason CIA intervened
What did the Bolivian Revolution Accomplish? Nationalized tin mining, supported miners unions & improved wages, enacted land reform and reducing the power of the military.
What PROBLEMS did the Bolivian Revolutionaries face? rising urban food prices lowered middle class living standards, improvements for miners cut into profits, Bolivia did not control tin refining and foreign refineries held down tin prices
What happened to start the Cuban Revolution? Fulgencio Batista a US backed dictator gets strongman control1933-1939 Batista moved toward a populist stance, continues ruling turning more oppressive until 1958
Who was Fidel Castro? lead revolutionary movement against Batista failed in 53 castros released 55 and returned with a small army that failed again. 12 fled to mountains to coordinate w/ antibatista underground, and spread the word. Jan. 1 1959 Castro and team finally wins.

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