Marketing Exam 2

Question Answer
What is motivation? An unobservable driving inner force that stimulates and compels human behavior, provides purpose and direction to that behavior. The reason for people’s needs, wants, and behavior. Closely related, motivation and need are often used interchangeably
What is Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance Theory? (LF) (1957)Mental discomfort (psycho stress) that occurs when a person experiences a contradiction b/w an existing state and a desired state. PPL motivated to reduce dissonance.Changing attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. Justifying, blaming and denying
What are the Rational Theories of Motivation? Early economic motivation theory that human beings are rational and guided by reason. CB researchers examine rational theories of motivation to explain consumer decision making.
What is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? Upon what four premises is it based? A macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in general terms
What are utilitarian consumer motivations? : Drive to acquire products that consumers can use to accomplish tasks.Dishwasher purchase is to clean dishes (or save time and effort). No one buys a dishwasher to have a dishwasher or to experience a dishwasher
What is Hedonic consumer motivation? Drive to consume experiences that are personally (often emotionally) gratifying.Purchasing concert tickets doesn’t accomplish a task nor provide the consumer with something tangible.
What methods are used to discover purchase motives 1. Manifest Motives: The clothes are very stylish and comes in diff. colors and styles, High quality and comfortable. Friends have it2: Consumer Behavior (purchase J crew clothes)3: latent motives ( Powerful and popular)
What is discovering Purchase Motives? Projective Techniques: Asking consumers to reveal their own motives by speculating on the motives of “others” Laddering: Ask a consumer to list the benefits of a product, asking to explain the benefits of the benefits to illicit underlying motives.
What are emotions? Specific psychobiological reaction to a cognitive and affective appraisal of an object or situation. A complex physiological arousal of the nervous system. Sometimes characterized by visceral responses (physical manifestations of an affective state).
What is one of the rational theories of motivation? (Economic Man) 1. Homo Economicus (Economic Man): The theory that human beings behave in a self-interested manner to meet their needs with an optimum solution.
What is the second rational theories of motivation? Bounded Rationality: The theory that human beings are less motivated to find an optimum solution. Instead their motivations are limited by: 1) Decision complexity, 2) Cognitive capability and 3) Available time
Upon what four premises is it based? Maslows Hierarchy needs Based in four needs. 1. humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction.2.Some motives are more critical than others.3.more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated.4. basic motives be
What are latent motives and manifest motives? Manifest Motives: Motives that are known and are freely admitted.Latent Motives: Motives that are either unknown to the consumer or the consumer is reluctant to admit them.
What are the types of consumer motives? Manifest Motives: Motives that are known and are freely admitted.Latent Motives: Motives that are either unknown to the consumer or the consumer is reluctant to admit them.
How is Emotions measured? Autonomic Measures: recording emotional responses sing physiologic responses (sweat, facial expressions, heart rate, pupil dilation, EEG, MRI,) Eye-tracking tech: Combination of hardware and software that measures where pupils are gazing (dilation).
How are emotions used in marketing strategy and advertising? Emotion Arousal as a Product BenefitConsumers actively seek products whose primary or secondary benefit is emotion arousal.Emotion Reduction as a Product BenefitMarketers design products to prevent or reduce the arousal of unpleasant emotions.
How are emotions used in marketing strategy and advertising? (Part Two) Enhance attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities.Processed more thoroughlyEnhance liking of the ad itself. increase brand preference through classical conditioning.high-involvement processes especially if emotion is decision rel
What is consumer involvement ? Can be described as a motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting.Considered the most important moderating variable in any consumer behavior study.
What is Product Involvement? Personal relevance of a product category. Product enthusiasts: Consumers involved in a specific category of products
What is Shopping Involvement? Enthusiasm in the specific activity of shopping.
What is Situational Involvement? Interest in a product category because of a specific (temporary need).
What is Enduring Involvement? Ongoing interest in a product category
What is Emotional Involvement? Personal interest in a specific product because of emotions evoked by the purchase (e.g., sports fans)
What is personality? An individual’s characteristic response tendencies across similar situationsGuides and directs the behavior chosen to accomplish goals in different situations.Motivation is the “why.” Personality is the “how.”
What is consumer personality? Consistent consumer tendencies in response to marketplace stimuli, Unique to an individual, Subject to situational influences.
What are the components of the Freudian Model of the Psyche? IdEgo Superego
What is the Id? Biological instincts such as hunger, libido, & pleasure. Desires immediate gratification.
What is the ego? Often referred to as the “conscience.” It is the part of the personality that strives for perfection. Opposite of the id
What is the Super Ego? The part of the personality that balances the base desires of the id with the overly legalistic restraints of the ego. Often seen as the part of the personality most grounded in reality.
What is the Five-Factor Model of Personality? Extroversions, Instability, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientious
What us Extroversions? Prefer to be in an large group, rather than be alone, talkative with others and bold
What is instability ? Moody, Temperamental and Touchy
What is Agreeableness? Sympathetic, kind to others, polite to others .
What is Openness to Experience? Imaginative, appreciative of art, and find novel solutions
What is Conscientiousness? Careful, precise and efficient
What are the important consumer traits of the single-trait approach Materialism, Frugality, Innovativeness, Need for Cognition, Need for Uniqueness, Impulsivity, Bargaining Proneness, and Status Consumption
What is Materialism The level of importance that consumers place on the acquisition and possession of material objects.
What is Frugality? The tendency to use restraint in the acquisition and consumption of products in order to minimize expenses.
What is Innovativeness? Degree to which an individual is open to new ideas and tends to be relatively early in adopting new products, services, or experiences.
What is Need for Cognition ? The tendency for a consumer to engage in and enjoy thinking about products and purchases.
What is Need for Uniqueness? The tendency to pursue differentness through purchases and consumption
`What is Impulsivity ? The tendency to buy and consume products on a whim (i.e., without prior planning)
What is Bargaining Proneness? Tendency to engage in bargaining behaviors (e.g., seeking discounts) when making purchases.
What is Status Consumption ? The tendency to purchase product for the perceived status that they convey to the owner and/or consumer.
What is brand personality? is a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand and are a particular type of image that some brands acquire
What is lifestyle? The way a person lives their life, devotes their time, and spends their money.Sometimes referred to as context-specific traitsInfluence purchase patterns of consumersUseful in identifying viable market segments
How are consumer lifestyles measured Psychographics, AIO Statements, and Demographics.
What are Psychographics ? Quantitative and qualitative measurements of consumer lifestyle
What are AIO Statements ? Activity, interest and opinion statements used in studies of lifestyle. Generally focused on nonoccupational behaviors to which consumers devote time and effort (e.g., hobbies, sports, public services, & religion)
What are Demographics ? Observable, statistical aspects of populations such as age, gender, or incomeUsed in conjunction with psychographic analysisHelp locate and understand lifestyle segments
What are the two major proprietary lifestyle approaches discussed in class? VALS and PRISM
What are VALS? Developed by Arnold Mitchell for SRI InternationalDraws heavily on the work of Harvard sociologist David Riesman and psychologist Abraham MaslowDivides consumers into groups based on resources and consumer behavior motivations
What is Prism? Developed by Claritas, Inc. (then bought by the Neilson Co.)Stands for Potential Ratings Index by ZIP MarketCombines demographic and behavioral information that enables marketers to better understand and target their customers
What is self-concept? What are its components? The totality of the individual’s thoughts and feelings having reference to himself or herself as an object.More simply, it’s comprised of the attitudes you have hold toward yourself.(self Esteem, Self Image, and Ideal self)
What is Self Esteem? Positivity of self-concept that one holdsSelf concept ? “I am a fast runner.”Self esteem ? “I feel good that I am a fast runner.”
What is Self Image? The mental picture one has of oneself
What is Ideal Self? What you wish you were really like.
What other related concepts in the theory of self were discussed in class? Self-confidence, Self-efficacy, Self-awareness: and Body esteem
What is Self Confidence ? Self-assurance in one's personal judgment, ability, power, etc.“I generally make the right choices for me
What is Self Efficacy? Belief in one’s ability to achieve a specific goal.“If I wanted to learn to play the guitar, I could.”
What is Self-Awareness? The extent to which an individual sees the ways they are unique or different in comparison to others.
What is Body Esteem? Positivity with which people hold their body imageUnrealistic body images affect consumers’ self-esteem
What is an attitude? A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.” the way one thinks, feels, and acts toward some aspect of his or her environment,” ( retail store, television program, or product)
What are the properties of consumer attitudes? Confidence, Resistance, Accessibility, Valence and Extremity(C.R.A.V.E)
What is Confidence? Belief that the attitude is correct
What is Resistance? The degree to which the attitude is immune to change.
What is Accessibility? How easily the attitude can be retrieved from memory
What is Valence? Whether the attitude is positive, negative, or neutral.
What is Extremity? The intensity of liking or disliking
What is the CAB Model of Attitude? Cognitive ComponentAffective Component.Behavioral Component
What is the Cognitive Component? (Thinking): A consumer’s beliefs about an object.
What is the Affective Component? (Feeling): A consumer’s feelings or emotional reactions to an object.
What is the Behavioral Component? (Doing): A consumer’s tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity.
What are beliefs? Subjective judgments about the relationship between two or more things.
What are Consumer Beliefs? Linkages between a particular brand and specific brand attributes, i.e., "consumer k's belief as to the extent to which attribute i is offered by brand jBeliefs can be related to features or benefits.
What are Feelings? An affective state ( current mood state) or reaction (emotion experienced during product consumption).Feelings tend to relate more to hedonic (emotional) benefits of a product. Tend to relate more to utilitarian (functional) benefits of a product
What is the Fishbein Multiattribute Attitude Model and how is it computed Ab = Consumer’s Attitude towards a particular brand bWi = The importance the consumer attaches to attribute IXib = Consumer’s belief about brand b’s performance on attribute in = Number of attributes considered (ab=E^n, i=l WiXib
What is the Fishbein Multiattribute Model Example (attributes) Shock absorptionPriced less than $50.00DurabilityComfortColor AvailabilityArch Support
Examples of the calculations WiBuying running shoes priced less than $50 is very good _ : _ : _ : _ : _ : _ : _ very bad +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3
Examples of the calculations XibHow likely is it that brand A running shoes are priced less than $50? very likely _ : _ : _ : _ : _ : _ : _ very unlikely +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3
How is the Fishbein Model applied to attributes? Companies want consumers to perceive their products as desirable.Possessing desirable attributes (when Wi positive, Xib should be positive)Not possessing undesirable attributes (when Wi is negative, Xib should be negative)(liptin Tea (g) Milk (b)
What are the benefits of using multiattribute attitude models? Diagnostic Power: why consumers like or dislike products. (based on importance of product attributes).New product development.Guidance in identifying attitude change strategies.Change beliefsChange attribute importanceChange ideal points
What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model? Assumes that once a customer receives a message, involvement is the key to how the consumer processes it.
What is the break down to the elaboration model? The Central Route (High-Involvement):Central Cues: Decision relevant Info presented in a message , its attributes, or the consequences of its use.The Peripheral Route (Low-Involvement):Peripheral Cues: Nonproduct-related information presented
What is balance theory and how does it work? Consumers are motivated to maintain perceived consistency in the relations found in a systemBased on the consistency principleConsistency principle: Human beings prefer consistency among their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors
What are the different message appeals discussed in class? Fear Appeals, Humorous Appeals, Sex Appeals, Comparative Ads, Emotional Appeals, Value-Expressive versus Utilitarian Appeals
What is Fear Appeal? Use the threat of negative (unpleasant) consequences if behaviors are not altered. Work best if: 1) The threat is real. 2) (not extreme) 3) The product provides a solution 4) The consumer is held accountable for resolving the threat.
What is Humorous Appeal? 1) Attract attention. 2) May transfer positive emotion to the brand via classical conditioning 3) Don’t always translate well across cultures. 4) May overshadow the message of the ad.
What is Sex appeal? Use of double entendre or sexual imagery in an advertising appeal to increase attention to the ad
What is Comparative Ads? Most effective when: 1) Promoting new or little known brands. 2) Claims are substantiated by credible sources. 3) Brand loyalty is not as strong for competing brand. 4) Noncompetitive ads have become stagnant 5) Print media is used. 6) Care i
What is Emotional Appeals? Designed to elicit a positive affective response rather than provide information or arguments. Emotional ads tend to increase attention, ad information processing, ad liking, and product liking.
What is Value-Expressive versus Utilitarian Appeals 1) Value-expressive appeals: Attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user. 2) Utilitarian appeals: Inform consumers of product’s functional benefits.
Why are celebrity sources effective? Attention, Attitude toward the ad, Trustworthiness, Expertise, Aspirational aspects, Meaning transfer
What is the celebrity source of attention Celebrity sources increase attention to the ad.
What is the celebrity source if the Attitude toward the ad Celebrity sources increase positive Ad
What is the celebrity source of Trustworthiness? Despite being paid, celebrities tend to engender trust.
What is the celebrity source of Expertise? Some celebrities are also experts: Tiger Woods ? Golf
What is the celebrity source of Aspirational Aspects? Consumers aspire to be like celebrities. Buying products celebrities endorse can facilitate those aspirations.
What is the celebrity source of Meaning Transfer? Consumers tend to associate known characteristics of the celebrity endorser with product attributes that coincide with their own needs.

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