Rehab Psych

Question Answer
Cooperative Teaching An instructional approach in which a special education teacher and a general educator teach together in a general education classroom to a heterogeneous group of students
Benefit of cooperative teaching This provides support to all students by combining the content expertise from the general educator and the pedagogical skills of the special educator
Advantages of labeling pupils according to their disability Labels serve as a means for funding and administering education programs, labels allow professionals to communicate efficiently in a meaningful fashion, research efforts frequently focus on specific diagnostic categories, etc.
Disadvantages of labeling pupils according to their disability Labels can be stigmatizing and may lead to stereotyping, labels have the potential of focusing attention on a persons limitations, labels can contribute to a diminished self-concept, and more.
Disability An inability to perform in a normal way. If someone is unable to function like their peers due to an abnormal physical or cognitive characteristic, and this inability or incapacity interferes with the persons potential, they are said to have a disability
Handicap The consequence stemming from ones disability; if disability is the cause, handicap is the effect
Special Education Specifically designed instruction to meet the unique needs of an individual recognized as exceptional- appropriate when someone’s needs cannot be accommodated in a general education program
1st component of PL 94-142 A free appropriate education- all children, regardless of their disability, must be provided with an education appropriate to their needs with no extra costs to the parents
2nd component of PL 94-142 The least restrictive environment- children with disabilities are to be educated, as much as possible, with students without disabilities
3rd component of PL 94-142 An individualized education program-this is a tailored statement describing an educational plan for each learner with exceptionalities.
4th component of PL 94-142 Procedural due process- the act affords parents several safe-guards as it pertains to their child’s education. They have the right to confidentiality of records, examine all records,etc.
5th component of PL 94-142 Nondiscriminatory assessment- A child must be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team in al areas of suspected disability by tests that are not in any way biased
6th component of PL 94-142 Parental participation- mandates parent involvement
Americans with Disabilities Act This act forbids discrimination against persons with disabilities in both the public and private sectors
Purpose of the americans with disabilities act according to Turnbull (1993) It’s purpose was to provide clear, strong, consistent, and enforceable standards prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities
Areas affected by the Americans with Disabilities Act Workplaces, mass transit systems, hotels, and fast-food restaurants. Employers may not discriminate against an individual with a disability. Accommodations may include a braille keyboard for someone who is blind, wide doorways to fit wheelchairs, etc.
IEP Individualized education program; designed to help children 3 and older who have a disability. The program is supposed to keep the child in the least restrictive environment while simultaneously meeting the child's needs at school
IFSP Individualized family service plan; meant for children from infancy to preschool. This is for children who are suspected of having a disability or have already been diagnosed with one, the intention is to keep the parents as the main caregiver
Pre-referral Intervention Instructional or behavioral strategies introduced by a general educator to assist students experiencing difficulty; designed to minimize inappropriate referrals for special education; allows teachers to see if a student needs a more extensive assessment
Culture The attitudes, values, belief systems, norms, and traditions shared by a particular group of people that collectively form their heritage. Culture is the medium in which we live.
Cultural Diversity Having people from different cultures all coexisting together in a community; each culture is allowed to express themselves; all of these different cultures live amongst each other, interact, and share parts of their culture with others
Why is bilingual education a controversial topic? It seems to place more value on the English language over native languages- they teach their subjects in their native language, but are placed in English-speaking classrooms as soon as they have enough proficiency
Why minority groups experience disproportionate representation This problem is often deeply rooted in socioeconomic, sociocultural, and sociopolitical forces- typically live in urban areas and tend to be poor. Poverty leads to poor health care, poor nutrition, leaving them at risk for difficulties.
Why is the assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse students perceived to be problematic? Standardized testing has frequently been criticized for its failure to consider the cultural and experimental background of culturally and linguistically diverse students. Many tests are only available in English
How to correct difficulty in assessment Providing tests in the native language, trying to reduce the amount of content bias instead of focusing on a narrow IQ test that may not display all forms of one’s intelligence, it is important to keep in mind the concept of multiple intelligences.
Stages of emotional response that many parents go through when informed that their child has a disability 1. Shock, denial, grief, and depression2. Guilt, anger, ambivalence, shame and embarrassment3. Adaption, reorganization, and acceptance/adjustment
Eugenics Movement Sought to improve the quality of humankind by forbidding marriage between individuals with intellectual disability; goal was to reduce the number of “unfit” parents and the “number of inferior offspring”
Relationships between professionals and parents because of the eugenics movement Professionals frequently adopted an attitude of superiority; this lead to less than positive relationships between professionals and parents. This also lead to barriers and an unfavorable atmosphere for working together.
Key personal characteristics of professionals who work with families of individuals with disabilities Awareness and sensitivity to the needs of the family, honesty, empathy, and genuineness. It’s also important that professionals practice active listening
Active listening Being attentive to the feelings as well as the verbal message being communicated.
The family systems model A family is an interdependent and interactive social system with unique characteristics and needs and when a situation arises the issues must be viewed and understood within the context of the family unit.
Universal design for learning The design of curriculum materials, instructional activities, and evaluation procedures that can meet the needs of learners with widely varying abilities and backgrounds
Assistive technology and universal design Many assistive technologies can be used to support UDL. For example, CAST (The Center for Applied Special Technology) offers the UDL Book Builder, which allows educators to create digital or e-books to share with students.
Assistive technology devices Any item, piece of equipment, or product system that increases, maintains, or improves functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities
Assistive technology services Services that directly assist an individual in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device
Who provides assistive technology services? An assistive technology specialist, special education teachers, speech-language pathologists, occupational therapists, and/or instructional technologists
The seven purposes for assistive technology 1. Positioning2. Mobility3. Augmentative and alternative communication4. Computer access5. Adaptive toys and games6. Adaptive environments7.Instructional aids
How has the definition of intellectual disability changed over the past several decades? 1960s and 1970s-subaverage/significantly subaverage IQ. 1990s- stresses functioning in one’s community rather than IQ. 2010- encouraged professionals to classify on the basis of intellectual abilities, adaptive behavior, health, participation, context.
List four different strategies for classifying individuals with intellectual disability. An etiological perspective, intellectual deficits, an educational perspective, levels of support
An Etiological Perspective Intellectual disability is a consequence of a disease process or biological defect. Examples include intellectual ability that is due to infections, chromosomal abnormalities, or metabolic disorders
Intellectual Deficits This popular classification is based on the severity of an intellectual impairment as determined by an IQ test. Individuals are classified into one of four levels on intellectual ability- mild, moderate, severe, or profound.
An Educational Perspective This system classifies students with intellectual ability based on expected or anticipated educational accomplishments. Special education teachers classified children into one of two groups: Educable mentally retarded or trainable mentally retarded
Levels of support It’s a classification scheme based on the type and extent of assistance required to function in various areas
Functional academics The application of life skills. Curriculum focuses on personal hygiene, independent living skills, community resources, and other issues that are designed to enhance their independence and successful adjustment
Community-based instruction A strategy for teaching functional skills in the environment in which they would naturally occur rather than in simulated settings
Adaptive behavior The collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday demands and requirements of his or her environment; how well a person copes
How is adaptive behavior assessed? It is usually measured via direct observation, structured interviews, or standardized scales

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