SS Unit 1

Question Answer
What is a continent? large land mass
List the 7 continents Europe, North America, Australia, Asia, Africa, South America, Antarctica
What is an ocean? a large body of water
List the 5 oceans Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Southern Ocean
Geography the study of the earth
hemisphere half of the earth
prime meridian 0 degrees longitude, divides the eastern and western hemisphere
equator 0 degrees latitude, divides the northern and southern hemisphere
cardinal directions four basic directions: N, S, E, W
intermediate directions in-between cardinal directions: NS, NW, SE, SW
symbols represents items found on a map
map key also called a legend, explains what each symbol means
scale tells us the ratio between a distance in real life and the distance on the map
physical map shows physical features (mountains)
historical map shows historical events, locations, territories
political map shows borders of states, countries, capitals
distribution map how something is spread out or distributed (ex. population)
Climate description of weather patterns over a long period of time, seasons
precipitation moisture that falls to the earthex. rain, snow, hail, sleet
temperature the weather outside in degreesex. warm, cool, cold, hot
altitude elevation above sea level, higher the altitude, colder the temperature
currents "rivers" of warm water from tropical climates flow to other areas, this water causes the air above to become warmer
North Atlantic Drift warm ocean current which makes western Europe have a mild climate for its latitude
What climate zone do we live in? temperate zone
What affects our climate? different climate zones
What is the difference between climate and temperature? climate is weather over a long period of time where the temperature is the exact degrees at any given time; our climate determines our temperature
renewable resources resources that do regrow and replace themselves, if we use themex. animals, plants, water, sunlight
natural resources something useful to humans that is found in nature
minerals natural resources often obtained by digging/miningex. coal, oil, salt (non-metals)
nonrenewable resources a resource that cannot regrow, reproduce, or replace itselfex. oil, plastics, metals
biodegradable able to be broken down (into soil) by natural means
Ice Age people during the Old Stone Age lived through the Ice Age; a period of time when the earth was much colder due to glaciers
glaciers huge sheets of ice covered much of the earth; this was called the Ice Age
What were people during the Old Stone Age called? nomads, hunters & gatherers
Who were the nomads? people who travel from place to place in search of food with out a permanent shelter; followed animal migrations and traveled in clans
Who were the hunters? men; hunted all sizes and types of animals
How did they hunt? trap (in holes and off a cliff)chase (long distance, needed good stamina)
Who were the gatherers? woman and children, gathered fruits, berries, grains, herbs
flint stone used to make tools, done by flaking and chipping
tools made out of stone by the people during the old stone age
Trial & Error: Method used by gatherers for what? method used to determine what was poisonous and what was safe; teach kids what they can and cannot eat
What was the hand axe used for? made by flint, an important tool, this was used to cut the meat off bones and to get marrow
cave paintings believed to have been on the cave walls, very symbolic
Why were these paintings symbolic? proved that humans were capable of abstract thought representing something that is not actually there
What was the purpose of these paintings? believed to have religious purpose; capture animal spirit and gain power over the animals; migration marker
What did people of the Old Stone Age NOT DO? grow crops, build permanent shelters, domesticate animals
What did people of the New Stone Age DO? grow crops, build permanent shelter, domesticate animals
How does the climate change? earth got warmers and glaciers melted, more fertile land is available, longer growing season –> more plants –> more food –> more people
surplus having more than is needed
What are the two major developments that occur that change the world forever? domestication & cultivation
domestication taming of animals
What were animals/domestication used for? Dogs – camp wolves provided protection and helped with huntingHerding – raising livestock (goats, cattle sheet) for milk and meatFarm work – pulling a plow, carry heavy items (donkey, mule)
cultivation preparing and using land to grow crops
What started to emerge along water? villages
Why did villages settle along water? good for cultivation of crops, drinking, food source, cleaning
civilization a society with a social structure, government, education, specialization
How were permanent shelters established? any available resources were used, sticks, woods, mud, sod
What is specialization? having special skills and training's to do a specific job
What are some different specializations? farmerherding – shephard/someone who raises live stockartisans – craftsperson (ironmaker, pottery maker)
Why are specializations important? helps make up a village; gives people a purpose
What was Catal Hujuk known for? oldest know city – Asia Minor (Present day Turkey), Center for trade
Why was it a rooftop city? entrance on the roof –> had to use ladder to get in; protected from animals
society group of people that share a common culture
values what a society deems is important (ex. honesty, responsibility, kindness)
What does the term culture mean? a way of life that belongs to a society
12 aspects of culture customs, food, tools, shelters, clothes, language, goods, government, knowledge, values, religion, arts
archaelogy the study of the remains; fossils, bones
What are artifacts? something made by people a long time ago
Primary Sources first hand account of an event; diary, letter, video tape
Secondary Sources information about a historical event; history book, textbook, tv show
What does BC stand for? Before Christ; we use a Christian calendar
What does BCE stand for? Before Common Era
What does AD stand for? Anno Domini
What does Anno Domini mean? Year of God

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