Stack #2617405

Question Answer
The Gene The basic unit of genetic instructions
Chromosome Threadlike strands of DNA in the nucleus of cells that carry genes and and functions of heredity
It is the _________ pair of chromosomes that determines a persons sex 23rd
In females there are two __________ shaped chromosomes two (XX)
In males there are one _______ chromosome and one _______ chromosome one X one Y (XY)
The ______ chromosome leads to the development of a male, so the sex of the zygote is determined by which sperm (X or Y) fertilizes the egg. Y
Critical Periods: developmental time window when we are more or less reactive to a situation/influence (in prenatal, called critical: once born, called sensitive periods because a problem less likely to have devastating effects.)
Maternal Malnutrition increases risk for birth defects/complications
Teratogens substances that can produce birth defects
Narcotics, Cocaine, Alcohol, Smoking are considered ________. Teratogens
Maternal Illness disease/sickness affects the unborn child depending on the type of illness and time of contraction (stage)
Attachment close, emotional bonds which develop between infant & caregiver
Secure happy around care giver
Insecure upset when caregiver is not present
________________ came up with the Strange Situation to measure attachment. Put kids in a room with a "stranger to see how they act. Mary Ainsworth
Harlow's Monkeys Half the monkeys received their nourishment from milk dispensers in the wire and half from a dispenser in the terry cloth mother
when in fear the monkeys would quickly return to the ________ cloth mother
Thus, ______________, not reinforcemnet from nourishment, was the crucial element for attachment formation. Contact comfort
Primary Sex Characteristics development of physical sexual structures needed for reproduction ( female- ovaries, vagina, uterus, menarche, 1st menstration (period); male- testes, penis
Secondary Sex Characteristic sex-specific physical features develop, ( breasts, pubic hair, voice change, facial hair, muscles/fat)
Piaget's (1896-1980) Cognitive Stage Theory development occurs through Assimilation and Accommodation
Assimilation incorporating a new experience into existing mental schema
Accommodation changing existing mental schema to explain new experience
Piaget identified ____ stages of cognitive development 4
Sensorimotor (0-2) exists when out of site
Formal Operational (11+) develop ability to think abstractly and systematically (and logic)
Vygotsky's Socioculture Theory kids actively try to construe meaning from society
Vicarious Reinforcement/Punishment watch it happen to someone else
Latent Learning Learning that occurs, but is not demonstrated until there is a motivation to do so
1. Attention is Required2. Mental Retention is Required3. Reproduction Must Be Possible4. Motivation Must Exist Basic Processes of Observational Learning
Observational Learning Learning that occurs by watching another organism model a behavior, so that the behavior can then be demonstrated
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement Often we engage in variety of different behaviors at any particular moment, each of which we may be operating on a different schedule of reinforcement
Fixed Interval reinforcement after fixed amount of time has passed. (most paydays, usually every two weeks regardless of hours worked)
Variable Ratio The most powerful schedule as it is resistant to extinction (VR 1000 gambling at a slot machine)
Schedules of Reinforcement how often and when a reinforcer is delivered for a particular response
Negative Punishment Response is DECREASED due to the REMOVAL of a pleasant stimulus (time out)
Positive Punishment Response is DECREASED due to the PRESENTATION of an unpleasant stimulus after the response (ass whoopin')
Negative Reinforcement Response is INCREASED due to the REMOVAL of an unpleasant stimulus after the response (Escape)
Positive Reinforcement Response is INCREASED due to PRESENTATION of pleasurable stimulus after the response (Reward)
Reinforcement contingency circumstances determining what responses lead to which consequences
Reinforcement an event occurring after a response which increases the chance of that response occurring again
Emit a voluntary response (contrast with 'elicit' in Classical Conditioning)
Secondary Reinforcer acquires gratifying qualities because it is associated with a primary reinforcer (money, {most common}, dress clothes, vehicles)
Primary Reinforcer inherently gratifying because it satisfies a biological need (food, air, shelter, basic clothing in freezing temps, sex, touch?)
Operant Chamber (aka Skinner box) an enclosure where responses can be recorded accurately and consequences can be manipulated systematically
Scientifically demonstrated the Law of Effect B.F. Skinner
Law of Effect (Thorndike) associations between a response and a stimulus followed by pleasant consequences will be strengthened, association followed by neutral or unpleasant consequences will be weakened
Higher Order Conditioning a CS function as a UCS for the purpose of conditioning a new CS (light paired with shock, then Bell is paired with light but never shock)
Conditioned Taste Aversion becoming physically sick after eating/drinking a specific item, produced a physical reaction the next time the item is presented; usually, this is adaptive
Scaffolding a skilled person provides a platform for a child to learn and then helps less until the child masters the task (Montessori)
Authoritarian Parents demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, not responsive to children's desires, and communicate poorly with their children. (think Hitler, dictator)
Authoritative Parents are demanding but set rational limits for their children and communicate well with their children
Erik Erikson's (1902-1994) Development of Identity Autonomy vs. Shame (Freud's Anal) Self-rule verses reliance, territoriality
Erik Erikson's (1902-1994) Development of Identity Ego Integrity vs. Despair (No Freud Stage) Looking back on life as good vs. bitter
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development (developing a sense of right/wrong) –PRE-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL– Stage 1: Punishment Orientation: determined by whats punished Stage 2: Reward Orientation: determined by whats rewarded
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development (developing a sense of right/wrong). –CONVENTIONAL LEVEL– Stage 3: Good Boy/ Good Girl Orientation: significant other's dis(approval)Stage 4: Authority Orientation: societal law/rules to be obeyed
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development (developing a sense of right/wrong). –POST-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL– Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation: Societal laws/rules which are negotiated to bring the greatest good and protection from anarchy Stage 6: Individual Principles/Conscience Orientation: Astract ethical principles emphasizing equity/justice/spirituali
Learning relatively durable change in behavior & or knowledge due to experience
Change may involve the gain or loss of behaviors
Experience events or series of events participated in and/or lived through
Stimulus any detectable input from the environment
Stimulus Impact The ability of a stimulus to produce a response. Stimuli vary in intensity, duration, and frequency
Response any specific instance of behavior
Behavior any observable thing an organism does. Behavior vary in intensity, duration, and frequency
Contingency dependency between events; an event can be a stimulus- contingent or response-contingent (if, then statements)
Contiguity relation of events in time and/or space
Classical Conditioning Learning where a previously natural stimulus comes to evoke a physiological response originally evoked by another stimulus
First to describe classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov (Russian Physiologist)
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Evokes Unlearned and unconditioned response
Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned/unconditioned response to an UCS
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) previously neutral stimulus that acquires an ability to evoke a conditioned response (CR, formerly the UCR) via conditioning
Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to CS
Classically conditioned responses are Elicited- drawn forth by the UCS/CS
Acquisition initial learning phase
Extinction disappearance or weakness of conditioned response
Operant Conditioning learning where responses come to be controlled by consequence (aka Instrumental learning)
Higher Order Conditioning a CS function as a UCS for the purpose of conditioning a new CS (light paired with shock, then Bell is paired with light but never shock)
Conditioned Taste Aversion becoming physically sick after eating/drinking a specific item, produced a physical reaction the next time the item is presented; usually, this is adaptive
Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of extinguished response after a period of stimulus absence (rest)
Stimulus Generalization DEMONSTRATION of a CR to stimuli that resemble the CS (applies to Classical and Operant Conditioning)
Stimulus Discrimination LACK of CR to stimuli that resemble the CS (applies to Classical and Operant Conditioning)
Conditioned Taste Aversion becoming physically sick after eating/drinking a specific item, produced a physical reaction the next time the item is presented; usually, this is adaptive

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