Vocab 2nd Nine Weeks

Question Answer
Cell the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane.
Cell Theory a theory in biology that includes one or both of the statements that the cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living matter and that the organism is composed of autonomous cells with its properties being the sum of those of its cells.
Eukaryote An organism whose cells contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and whose DNA is bound together by proteins
Nucleus the positively charged central core of an atom, consisting of protons and neutrons and containing nearly all its mass.
Organelle any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
Cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Prokaryote a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Nuclear Envelope The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
Chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Nucleolus a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
Ribosome a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells.
Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane.
Golgi Body a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
Lysosome an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
Vacuole a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
Mitichondrion an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Chloroplast a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Cytoskeleton a microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence.
Centriole a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.

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